Digestive system

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  • Structure
    • Oesophagus: Muscles along oesophagus tighten and relax in a 'wave' downwards and the food is moved into the stomach
    • Mouth: chewing, breaks down food, saliva mixes with food to break it down -->MSDAE
    • The Digestive System
      • Diabetes
        • Causes
          • Metabolic imbalance of pancreas
          • Family history
          • High cholesterol
          • High Blood Pressure
          • Obesity
          • Race/ Ethnicity
        • Symptoms
          • Dehydration
          • Weightloss
          • Vision problems
          • fatigue
          • If not controlled effectively: HBP, Heart attack, infection, limb amputatuion
          • Tingling in hand and feet
        • Treatment
          • Type 1: insulin injection everyday, oral drugs, insulin thereapy
          • Lifestyle choices: diet and exercise
        • Diagnostics
          • Blood sugar
    • Stomach: Temporary storage for food eaten. Sromach 'churns'; food is mechanically broken down.cell lining prduces 'gastric juice'; this is needed so the body can obtain nutrients. chyme is produced.
      • 'gastric juice' contains pepsin and intrinsic factor. Acid in juice allows pepsin to begin the chemical breakdown of the food into proteins.
    • Small Intestine: Duodenum--> main site for absorption. Jujenum--> Where final juices help digestion are secreted by cells in the lining.
      • gallbladder releases bile into duodenum. Bile emulsifies fat. Pancreas releases pancreatic juices into duodenum.
        • Juice contains a mixture of enzymes to break down the fat, protein and carbs.
    • Ileum: Where remaining nutrients are absorbed. Bile salts are also absorbed to be recycled by the body, Vitamin B12 is absorbed.
    • The large Bowl:3 sections --> caecum, Colon (removes water, salts and nutrients forming stool) and rectum (stool passes through this)
    • Pancreas: secretes digestive enzymes. Enzymes break down, protein, fats and carbs. Also makes insulin
    • Liver: Process nutrients absorbed from small intestine. Detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals.
    • Gallbladder: Stores extra bile


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