The Democratic Republic of the Congo - A Least Developed Country

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Resources in the DRC
      • rich in gold, diamond, cobalt and copper
        • attracted many people to the country which has resulted in violence
          • "the resource curse"
        • said to have around 50% of world's total cobalt
      • supplies of coltan used in mobiles and cassiterite used in food packaging
        • much of the coltan is illegally exported through Rwanda
      • Lubumbashi in the south is known as the mineral capital of the DRC
      • precious tropical hardwoods
        • siphoned off through Uganda
          • much of the coltan is illegally exported through Rwanda
      • 13% of the world's hydropower so could power much of Africa
      • Glencore entered the DRC in 2009
        • with their investment the region is able to make three hundred thousand tons of copper cathode each year
        • invested nearly five million dollars in two regions
        • created 12,500 jobs for nationals
    • Colonialism under Belgium
      • in the early 20th Century, Belgian forces arrived and enslaved millions
        • King Leopold ruled the country as his own territory
        • terrible human rights abuses
    • Mobutu Dictatorship
      • he was backed by the West during the Cold War due to strategic interests
        • meant brutal dictatorship could continue
        • ruled for 32 years
      • liberation war eventually toppled him
        • made an obstacle for development
      • seized power in 1965
        • set about trying to crush internal rebels and unifying the nation
          • changed it to Zaire
          • he was eventually seduced by wealth and once he got the country to a certain point used the riches for himself
            • country gradually slipped from his control
              • 1994 Rwanda genocide hastened his downfall
                • more than 2 million Hutus fled into the DRC among them the militiamen responsible for the genocide
                  • allied themselves with Mobutu's government and began to attack ethnic Tutsis
                    • eventually Tutsi militias backed by Uganda overthrew Mobutu's government
    • Role of TNCs
      • child labour
        • tech companies such as Apple, Samsung and Sony have been accused of using cobalt mined by child labourers
          • Apple said "underage labour is never tolerated"
          • Samsung said it had a zero tolerance policy towards child labour
          • Sony said it was working with suppliers to address human rights issues
        • as young as seven
        • face health issues and are prone to fatal accidents
        • work up to 12 hours a day for one or two dollars
        • Unicef said 40,000 children were working in mines in southern DRC in 2014
      • bulk of the world's cobalt is sold by China's Huayou Cobalt and its subsidiary Congo Dongfang Mining
      • UN report finds that 85 multinational companies have violated ethical guidelines
        • 12 from UK
        • examples include Afrimex, Barclays Bank and Euromet
    • Failed State
      • people in the DRC expect very little from the state
        • expect little from upcoming elections
        • ordinary citizens are poor, hungry and under-informend
          • expect little from upcoming elections
        • government unable to provide decent education or health services
          • hardly has any roads or railways
      • brutal militias still control provinces in the east
        • "rape capital of the world"
        • cases of numerous journalist killings and beatings
      • starting a business takes 65 days
      • bottom of the HDI out of 187 countries
        • on the Failed States Index the DRC is in the critically failed category
          • central government can't control its borders with nine countries leading to "the resource curse"
          • international community also to blame as they implement contradictory plans
      • absence of national sovereignty
      • important decisions made by international forces such as UN
        • Monusco looks after security sector
        • UK involved in reinforcing governance programmes
        • churches look after primary school education
        • on an artificial life-support system
      • whilst it is a failed state the Congolese society has not failed
        • positive change will come from the people
    • Conflict
      • slowly recovering from Africa's first world war
        • led to the loss of five million lives between 1994 and 2003
          • starvation or disease
        • this war along with the liberation war which brought down Mobutu have created overwhelming obstacles to development, state-building and well-being
      • the resources in the country dived the population and brought conflict that was both from  internal and external sources
      • independence struggle in 1960s saw the country almost disintegrate
    • Conflict Resolution
      • most of the country has now found peace and the central government has slowly reasserted control
      • first democratic elections in more than four decades saw Kabila's son Joseph elected as president
      • UN peacekeeping mission has been in the country since 1999
        • one of the biggest with almost 20,000 personnel
        • mandated with protecting civilians and helping reconstruct the country
        • also played a big part in the elections
        • launched military operations
        • Congolese government believes it is now capable of maintaining law and order and wants the UN to leave

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Development and Globalisation resources »