Russia 1855-1964 the Crimean War

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  • The Crimean War 1853-56
    • Between Russia and the Ottoman Turks (supported by GB and FR). Culminated in the siege of Sevastapol, Russian troops surrendered and the Treaty of Paris signed- Russia ceded valuable territory in Bessarabia
    • The effects of the Crimean War
      • A II associated lack of success with the idea that compared to GB and FR, Russia's economic and social infrastructure was outdated- particularly serfdom
      • Emancipation of the serf 1861 allowed greater entrepreneurialism in agriculture (selling surplus at market without mir permission), the movement of some labour in industry, modernisation of military and social reforms (still maintaining nobility and Tsar control)
      • Modernisation of the military occured - emanc meant less peasant obligation to serve in army. Therefore changed how the army was recruited, trained and organised
      • Changes to the way localities were governed, nobility saw landholdings reduced, along with the obligations that came with serfdom, no political role to play at local level. Emancipated peasants seemed isolated from the rest of society, no outlet to express grievances. By default- local affairs management by local police constables appointed by Interior Ministry. A II bridged this gap with ZEMSTVA
    • The creation of the Zemstva
      • Appeared to bring an element of democracy but must not be overstated
      • STRENGTHS:
        • Members elected by a mixture of landowners, urban dwellers and peasants, based on a property qualification
        • Zemstva could feed regional issues back to central govt, and to some extent challenge the policies of the Tsar
        • Councils tended to be dominated by nobility and professional classes
        • Zemstva only in Great Russia
        • Not all provinces eligible for representation were covered by the Zemstva, by 1917 still 37 provinces without one
    • Limitations of reform
      • No major change in ideology or structure of central Russian govt
      • Main aim to preserve autocracy
      • Emanc etc. reforms from above to precent reform from below/ rebellion


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