• Created by: Cordero
  • Created on: 21-11-18 19:00
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  • The CPU
    • CPU architecture
      • The Control Unit (CU) is the overall control of the CPU. It executes instructions with the Fetch-Decode-Execute cycle. Controls the flow of data inside and outside the CPU.
      • The Artihmetic Logic Unit (ALU) handles all calculations and performs logic operations such as AND, OR and NO. Registers store the results of the calculations.
      • The cache is very fast but small capacity memory in the CPU. It's slower than the registers but faster than the RAM. Stores regularly used data so that the CPU can access it quickly when it is needed again. When the CPU requests data it checks the cache first, and then checks the RAM if the data is not found.
      • The clock sends out continuous signals of 1 and 0 to regulate the speed of the processor. Like a metronome it synchronises when instructions are carried out. Number of clock cycles per second is clock speed.
      • Buses are a collection of wires that are used to transmit data between the components of the CPU and other parts of the computer. A processor may have different buses for carrying data, instructions and memory addresses.
    • Von Neumann Architecture
      • The Von Neumann architecture consists of a system where the CPU runs programs that are stored in the memory
      • The CU controls the flow of data. Also keeps track of the memory address of the instruction for each cycle.
      • The ALU gets data from the CU and registers, performs the operation, and sends the output back to the registers.
      • And data, instructions and memory addresses that are about to be used by the CPU is held by the registers. There are specific registers for different tasks
      • The memory hold program instructions and the program data.
    • Fetch-Decode-Execute cycle
      • 1. The CU reads the memory address of the next instruction. Instruction is copied from memory to one of the registers. Memory address in the CU is incremented to point the address to the next instruction, ready for next cycle.
      • 2. The instruction that has been copied from memory is decoded by the CU. The CU loads other values into the registers ready for the next step.
      • 3. The instruction is performed. Could be to load data from memory, write data, calculations, logic etc.


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