The Consequences and Importance of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan in 1947

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  • Created on: 07-12-18 10:37
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  • The Consequences and Importance of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan in 1947
    • What was the 1947 Truman Doctrine?
      • A set of ideas from President Truman to stop the spread of Communism in Europe
      • Argued for Containment
        • Keeping Communism in the Soviet Union and stopping it spreading
      • Give money and military support to any European countries wanting to fight the influence of Communism
      • 12th March 1947, Truman announced he would give economic help to countries like Greece and Turkey
        • He promised $400 million and sent American soldiers to Greece and Turkey to stop Communism influencing them
      • He stated the differences between democracy ( being able to vote) and Communism (a dictatorship)
        • He argued democracy gave freedom and choice and Communism forced people to accept certain ideas
          • He compared capitalism and communism to 'good and evil'
      • The US could afford this due to entering the war late and as it was not destroyed like many European countries
    • What was the 1947 Marshall Plan?
      • Named after Us Secretary of State George Marshall
      • Plan to give money to European countries who needed help due to the destruction caused by World War Two
      • If these countries' populations were better off and happier, there would be less chance of them supporting communism
      • It gave economic aid to countries that were damaged by war
        • These included: Britain, France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, Austria
      • USA gave $12.7 billion from 1948 to 1952
      • Called by the British Foreign Secretary a 'Lifeline to sinking men, giving hope where there was none'
      • Offered money to the Eastern European satellite states under Stalin's control
        • Stalin refused the money, preventing these countries from gaining from America
    • What were their consequences and why were they important?
      • Stalin thought the USA was trying to become more powerful and create an American empire in Europe
        • He believed they were doing this through their offers of 'free' money to Eastern European countries
      • Stalin said the USA's actions were 'Dollar Imperialism'
        • They were using money to take control and have influence in other countries
      • Stalin saw USA as more of a threat with more American troops being based in Europe due to these actions
      • They lost the ability and belief they could have  a friendly Grand Alliance
        • Both countries trusted each other less
        • Both believed the other was trying to expand its influence in Europe
      • The USA  and the Soviet Union were now directly opposed to each other
        • Had different beliefs in capitalism and communism, and not much in common
        • Europe was divided into Western Europe, backed by the USA and Eastern Europe, controlled by the Soviet Union
          • The 'Iron Curtain' now looked to exist and a map of Europe showed two sides against each other


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