Changes in Position of Childhood

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  • The change in the Position of Childhood
    • March of Progress View
      • The family has become child-centred
        • Children are the focal point of the family
        • Have high aspiration for their children
        • Parent invest a lot of time into their children, emotionally and economically
      • Over that last few years the position of children has changed positively
      • Children have become more valued, cared for, protected, educated and have better health care rights
        • Laws that protect them from explotation and harm
        • Better health care and standard of living means higher chance of survival
        • Higher standard of living and smaller family sizes (5.7 births in 1860's- 1.84((1.5)) births in 2006) increase change of survival
    • The Conflict View
      • Neglect and Abuse
        • Child line report that in a year they get over 20,000 calls from children reporting either sexual or physical abuse
        • In 2006, 31,400 children were on the child protection regester
      • Control over children's time and space
        • 'No school children' signs in shops
        • Increase close surveillance over children in public areas
        • Fears about road safety and stranger danger has led to less independent travel
        • In 1971 Hilman found that 80% of 7-8 yr olds were aloud to travel to school alone, this reduced to 9% in 1990s
        • Control how fast they grow up as they decide whether a child is 'too young' to do certain tasks
        • Adults control daily routine of children
      • Control over children's bodies
        • Control how they are touched, nurtured and disciplined
        • Told how to touch their own bodies, not to pick their nose
        • Control how they sit and walk. How they dress
      • Control over children's access to resources
        • Law exclude them from part-time employment
        • Child benefits go to parents, not the child
        • 'Pocket money' is restricted
      • Inequalities amongst children
        • Ethnic differences- Asian parents are seen to be more strict
        • Not all children share the same status or experiences
        • Class differences- Children of laborers are more likely to suffer from hyperactivity
          • Poor mothers have low birth weight which leads to delayed physical and intellectual development
        • Gender difference- Boy are more likely to be able to go out alone before girls.
      • Inequalities between children and adults
        • Argued that it is protection
        • Prevention from paid work- segregates them and makes them powerless
        • View described as 'Child liberationism'


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