The causes of the Glorious Revolution, 1688

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  • Causes of the Glorious Revolution, 1688
    • James' religious policies
      • His use of suspending and dispensing powers allowed Catholics to hold offices.
      • Surrounded by Catholics at court, and was openly Catholic.
      • Declaration of Indulgence.
      • Challenged Tory Anglican Supremacy, they are loyal to the Crown and Church. Unwillingly to fight or oppose him.
    • Invitation to William
      • Seven leading political figures- both Whig and Tory- signed a letter in the summer of 1688 inviting William of Orange to intervene in England with an armed force.
      • They viewed William as the legitimate heir to the throne because he was married to Mary Stuart.
      • William accepted because those who signed represented both sides of the political elite.
        • 5 Whigs, 2 Tories, and the Earl of Shrewsbury was raised a Catholic before converting to Anglicanism.
        • The letter stated that '19 parts of 20' in the nation desired change.
      • William had been involved in founding the League of Augsburg with a number of other European nations in 1686 in order to restrict Louis XIV's France.
        • Nine Year's War 1688-97 became the central focus of his political and military career.
        • Bringing England into the war would even the balance of resources that had always favoured Louis.
    • Invasion
      • William was well supplied with over 500 ships and 21,000 men, and landed at Torbay in November.
      • His victory was not guaranteed because James had an effective army at his disposal.
      • James amassed his forces at Salisbury Plain, but realising that his hastily assembled troops were inferior in both experience and equip,emt, he retreated giving William a clear path to London.
    • Seven Bishops case
      • 1688: James issued another Declaration of Indulgence and ordered it be read to congregation in every parish.
      • 7 bishops refused to obey and were arrested, tried and acquitted.
      • When James's wife gave birth to a son two days later, the prospect of a Catholic heir became a reality as James's older children were both daughters.


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