IGCSE P.E: The Cardiovascular System.

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  • The cardiovascular System.
    • Key Terms:
      • Stroke volume: The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle by each contraction.
      • Cardiac Output: The amount of blood leaving the heart per minute.
      • Heart rate: The number of times the heart beats per minute.
      • Systolic: The maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts and pushes blood through the aorta to the body.
      • Diastolic: The pressure of the blood  when the heart is at relaxation.
      • Blood pressure: The force of the blood against the blood vessels.
    • Short-term Effects:
      • Breathing faster and deeper to supply oxygen to the lungs
      • Body temperature increases, heat regulates radiates from the muscles through the skin as sweat.
      • Sweating occurs to cool us down, salt and water is lost and needs to be replaced or cramp will occur.
      • Muscle fatigue occurs: Muscles need energy and oxygen, eventually the heart cant get oxygen quicky and anaerobic respiration taes place: lactic acid.
    • Long-term effects:
      • Increased stroke volume.
      • Lower resting heart rate.
      • Quicker heart rate recovery.
      • Lower blood pressure.
      • Healthier veins, arteries and capilleries.
      • Size and volume of heart increases.
      • Cardiac output decreases.

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