biological for ocd and phobias

  • Created by: cieran32
  • Created on: 29-05-18 18:58
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  • the biological approach to OCD/ Phobias
    • explaining ocd
      • neural Explanaitons
        • serotonin levels low in OCD- antidepressants that increase serotonin most effective (Jenicke)
        • Dopamine levels high in OCD- linked to compulsive behaviours in animal studies ( Szechtman et al)
        • worry circuit- damaged caudate necleus doesn't suppress worry signals from OFC (orbital frontal cortex) to thalumus
        • Serotonin and dopamine linked to activity in these parts of the frontal lobe e.g(Sukel)
      • Genetic explanations
        • SERT gene- one allele more common in a family with OCD, creates low levels of serotonin (Ozaki et al)
        • COMPT gene-  one allele more common in OCD, creates high levels of Dopamine (Tukel et al)
        • Diathesis - stress - same genes linked to other  disorders or no disorder at all therefore consider a vulnerability
      • Evalution
        • genes are not specified to OCD - also linked tourettes , autism, anorexia i.e obsessive types of behaviours
        • environmental component- concordance rates have never 100%, type of OCD is not inherited
        • studies of first degree relatives- 5 times greater risk of OCD if relative has OCD (Nestadt et al )
        • twin studies-  twice as likely to have OCD if MZ twins
    • treating OCD
      • Drug therapy
        • SSRI's - prevent re-uptake of serotonin by pre-synaptic nueron
        • antidepressants increase serotonin
        • tricyclics- block re- uptake of noradrenaline and serotonin but have more severe side effects, so are second choice of treatment
      • evaluation
        • drug therapies are preferred less time and less effort than CBT, and my benefit from from interaction with caring doctor
        • effectiveness-  SSRIs better than placebo over short term(soomro et al)
        • side effects  not so severe with SSRIs (e.g insomnia) more severe with tricyclics e.g (hallucination)
        • not a lasting cure patients relapse when treatment stops (maina et al)
        • publication bias- more studies with positive results are published which may bis doctor prefences
    • treating phobias
      • Flooding
        • continues until anxiety subsides and relaxation is complete
        • one long session with the most fearful stimulus
        • can be in vivo or virtual reality
      • evaluation
        • Effectiveness- research suggests it may be more effective  than SD and quicker (Choy et al)
        • individual differences- traumatic and, if patients quits then treatment has failed
        • symptom substitution- a phobia may be underlying problem (e.g little Hans )


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