The Berlin Crisis 1961

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  • The Berlin Crisis 1961
    • Refugee problems
      • East German gov. very unpopular so many fled to the West.
      • West Germany offered many more freedoms
      • Berlin had the most refugee problem as nothing stopping them passing from East to West.
    • Krushchevs Ultimatum
      • propaganda disaster as proved people preferred Capitalism over Communism
      • Nov. 1958 K declared berlin belonged to USSR
      • gave ultimatum to USA troops. they had 6 months to leave.
    • Eisenhowers response
      • USA unsure how to respond
      • E didnt want to lose Berlin but he also didn't want a war. so held many international meetings.
    • Summit meetings
      • Geneva May 1959
        • foreign representatives
          • No solution but another summit arranged
      • Camp David Sept 1959
        • Eisenhower and Krushchev
          • No solution but another meeting arranged
      • Paris summit May 1960
        • Eisnhower and Krushvchev
          • disaster. K stormed out because the USSR had been shot down over Russia.
            • they never apologized said it was a weather plane.
      • Vienna Conference Jan 1961
        • Kennedy and Krushchev
          • neither were willing to backdown.
          • K saw Kennedy as weak over the Bay of Pigs failure.
          • K continued his ultimatum to remove USA troops from Berlin.
    • Kennedy Prepares for War
      • Kennedy refuses to back down and remove USA troops. a point of STALEMATE
      • spent 3.2 billion on defence
    • Building the Wall
      • Krushchev knew USSR not ready for war.
        • USA missiles could reach USSR. but USSR couldnt reach USA.
      • so, K backed down to Kennedy. but still had a refugee problem.
        • so he built a war between east and west Berlin. this stopped refugees going across.
          • he put up barbed wire over night.
      • Impacts of the Berlin Wall
        • ended the refugee crisis.
          • this stopped skilled workers leaving which affected economy.
            • stabilized East economy
        • K avoided war with USA while still appearing strong
          • reduced tensions as no longer a threat of a nuclear war.
        • powerful symbol of the divide between East and West.
    • Kennedys visit to Berlin
      • unable to stop the construction but in 1963 he visited West Berlin.
        • famously said "i am a Berliner" expressing how NATO and USA were going to defend West Berlin from the soviets
      • West Berlin symbol of freedom


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