The Behaviourist Approach

  • Created by: julyfirst
  • Created on: 22-03-19 12:41
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  • Behaviourism
    • Assumptions
      • Behaviour that can be observed and measure
      • Relied on lab experiments
      • Watson rejected introspection
      • Animals could be used in experiements instead of people as we have similar learning patterns
      • Classical Conditioning
        • First demonstrated by Pavlov
        • Dogs were coniditioned to salivate at the sound of bell (neutral) after being paired with food
        • Learning by association
      • Operant Conditioning
        • Suggested by Skinner
        • 'Positive reinforcement' a reward that increases chance of behaviour being repeated
        • 'Negative reinforcement' behaviour occurs more in order to avoid something unpleasant
        • 'Punishment' an unpleasant consequence that decreases likelihood of behaviour repeating
    • Evaluation
      • Scientific Credibility- results can be replicated
      • Real Life Application- token economy systems in prisons
      • Mechanistic View- see humans as passive, machine-like responders with little concious thought
      • Environmental Determinism- ignores any possible influence of free will, Skinner only focuses on reinforcement history
      • Ethical Issues- Skinner's rat box had the animals exposed to stressful conditions


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