The Beginning of Psychological Approaches

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  • The Beginning of Psychological Approaches
    • approaches are a way of looking at something
      • learning approach
        • social learning theory
        • behaviourism
          • operant conditioning
          • classical conditioning
      • biological approach
      • cognitive approach
      • psychodynamic approach
      • humanistic approach
    • the first psychologist was Wilhelm Wundt
      • believed all aspects of nature, including the human mind, can be studied scientifically
      • used introspection to study behaviour in lab conditions
        • introspection is the examination of our own thought processes so that we can gain information about our own mental and emotional states
        • Hunter and Csikszentminalyi
          • used introspective methods to measure happiness by giving teenagers beepers that went off regularly throughout the day. they had to write down their thoughts and feelings the moment before the beep
            • found participants were unhappy a lot of the time but when focused on a challenging task they tended to be more upbeat
        • Watson
          • data gathered is subjective so generalisable principles cannot be established
      • had trained participants attempt to record their thoughts and to break down the responses and reactions to feelings, images etc.
        • wanted his participants to be as objective and systematic as possible and to break down their thoughts into separate elements
        • lacks reliability - when other researchers tried to replicate both the processes and findings they couldn't get the same or similar results
        • valuable on an individual basis but cannot be used to measure all human behaviour or be representative
    • John Watson
      • proposed scientific psychology should only study phenomena that can be observed and measures
        • this proposal created the behaviourist approach which emerged psychology as a science


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