antartic and artic case study

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  • polar environments
    • Artic
      • climate -less than 10 degrees in summer and about -20 to -40 in winder will rain less than 500mm
      • land - made up of ocean with icebergs which extends in winter- mountainous regions are covered with snow always and tundra have 1 layer of soil
      • plants- shrubs lichens moths animals- polar bears , seals whales
    • antarctic
      • climate- summer is -20 to -50 and winter is -90 with less than 200mm rain
      • land- ice sheet covers 99% and a few mountain peaks with ice pop out e.g transantatic
      • plants- moss lichen animals- whales seals penguins birds
    • cold dry climate means biodversity is low- if temp increases sea ice melts - cold enviorment causes vegation to decompose lowly and gorw slowly(tundra) and in antartic phytoplankton in sea form basic food chains
    • human use/ impact
      • tourism- increases air travelling - pollution in water/air - disturb breeding colonies- trampling damages vegetation- erode land- litter and waste harm habitats as decomposition rates are slow
        • Eco tourists are sustainable as they travel in small groups and make less noise activities include rafting and fishing
      • inuits- only population of 4m in Greenland and Canada- rely on reindeer/ fishing / hunting- they eat every part of animals the hunt- less waste disposal and use kayaks- less noise when travelling (sustainable)
      • oil shipping- Canada to Russia- due to higher demand of products- lots of pollution/ noise / oil spills can affect animals skin- hard to clean up and damage ecosystems of marine animals unsustainable
      • mineral extraction- drilling in ice- creates holes- oil spills- pipelines have to be built to transport oil- lets the permafrost- interruption of ecosystems- unsustainable
    • sustainable management
      • antartic trety -agreement to 12 countries to manage the area- icluding no mineral explrotation, no fishing, no waste disposal,portection  e.g only 100 vistors allowed in on a cruise ship
      • artic council- it had 8 countries including canada greenland , finland etc- it proposed that a area of the artic had to be in marine serve where human activity is banned including no fishing , no exploration
      • whaling in the artic- conserve whales- banned for commercial reasons however inits could be allowed and japan is allowed due to scientific reasons

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