The 1905 Revolution

  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 13-02-20 18:05
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  • The 1905 Revolution
    • The Russo-Japanese War
      • Triggered by the Tsar's decision to try expand the Russian Empire by invading China, bringing conflict with the Japanese Empire.
        • Led to military defeat, economic problems, and exposed the weaknesses of Russia's leaders.
      • Military Defeats
        • The Tsar's racist ideology made it so he assumed the white Russia would easily beat it's asian enemies.
          • However...
            • the Japanese handed out humiliating defeats on the Russian army and navy.
            • the Russians were forced to surrender Port Arthur in January 1905.
              • The point of the war was that Russia wanted this warm water port of trade so this was humiliating.
            • The Russian Baltic Fleet was defeated by the Japanese navy at the Battle of Tsushima in May 1905.
      • Economic and Political problems
        • The defeat was based on the fact that Japan had a highly developed industrial economy and a well organised government.
          • However, Russia had a backwards economy and incompetent leaders.
      • The economic strain of war meant the economy could no longer meet the demands of the popluation.
        • Food prices rose, while wages stayed the same.
          • Hence, workers began to stike and protest.
        • The war exposed Nicholas II's incompetance as he...
          • Refused to listen to bad news from the war.
          • Appointed deferential generals with little experience of modern warfare.
          • Trusted his religious advisors who promised him that God would give them the victory.
          • Had little understanding of economics or modern military strategy.
          • Rejected realistic assessments of the problems facing Russia from senior ministers.
            • Especially Witte, who knew that the economy was too weak and the military leaders were too incompetent to cope with the war.
    • Bloody Sunday
      • Januray 1905
        • Took place suring the context of stikes and protests in St Petersburg caused by the war.
      • A priest called Father Gapon led 150,000 peaceful protestors to the Winter Palace.
        • Their aim was to present a petition asking for better pay and work conditions.
      • Massacre
        • Local officials called in the army to maintain control.
          • Soldiers opened fire on the crowd
        • 200 killed and 800 wounded.
      • Consequences
        • Helped unite different groups.
        • Undermined the myth that the Tsar was a caring 'little Father' to the Russian people.
          • Radical propaganda argued that the massacre demonstrated that the Tsar didn't care about the suffering of his people.
        • Waves of protests broke out.
          • By Feburary 1905, 400,000 workers were on strike in responce.
      • Father Gapon
        • Played the leading role in organising the march.
          • Also wrote the petition that they planned to present the Tsar.
        • A radical Orthodox priest who was sincerly concerned with improving the lives of the poor.
          • Before the march, he organised the Assembly of Factory and Mill Workers of St Petersburg.
            • The organisation quickly spread throughout the city.
              • By 1905, it had 8,000 members.


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