The Thatcher governments

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  • The Thatcher governments:
    • The Thatcher Goverments
      • Electoral sucess
        • May 1979: Conservatives won 339 seats, 43.9% of votes
        • June 1933: 397 seats, 42.2% of votes
        • June 1987: 375 seats, 422.% of votes
      • Northern Island and the Troubles
        • March 1979: Airy Neave killed in car bomb
          • by INLA, breakaway group from IRA
            • relased statement saying: 'Airy Neave got a taste of his own medicine when an INLA unit pulled off the operation of the decade and pulled him to bits'
              • Maggie absolutely devastated, "incalculable loss" to British ruling class
        • August 1979: Earl of Mountbatten (uncle of Charles) blown up by bomb smuggled on his holiday yacht in County Sligo
          • killed daughter, grandson and 2 others
            • synchronised with detonation of 2 romote-control bombs at Warren Point, Northern Ireland
              • killed 18 British soldiers of parachute regiment as revenge for 'Bloody Sunday'
        • tried negotiation, but was rough as well. 1980: meetings with Charles Haughey, Irish PM
        • 1981: protests against refusal of authorities in Maze Prison to treat Bobby Sands as political prisoner
          • went on hunger strike for 66 days. Became a martyr
            • Mrs Thatcher's reaction was to stand firm
            • More votes for Sinn Fein
        • Margaret escaped assassination attempt in Brighton Grand Hotel
          • bomb was planted by IRA in a bathroom wall
            • timed to go off early hours when most of cabinet would be there
              • 5 killed (0 ministers), 30 injured
                • Conference continued
        • Anglo-Irish agreement August 1985 between Thatcher and Irish Premier, Garrett Fitzgerald
          • 1. Republic recognised NI as being constitutuionly part of UK. 2. Brittish gov gave full assurance to support civil rights for NI and acknowledged strength of nationalist desired for United Ireland. 3. 2 govs committed to close co-op over cross-border security
            • Opposition: 1. Unionists objected of involvement of Irish Gov in NI affairs, would lead to united Ireland under Dublin. Didn't attend Westminster 2. Republicans rejected for same reasons. 3. Thatcher's gov unhappy as it could portray them of supporters of violence
    • Thatcher as a leader
      • Character
        • the Iron Lady
        • anti communist
        • firm woman
      • ideology
        • Communism was enemy of Freedom
        • not a '1-nation Tory'
      • Born Margaret Hilda Roberts, daughter of a grocer in 1925, studied chemistry at Oxford, from Grantham, married Dennis. MP for Finchley. Education Secretary in Heath's gov. Challenged Heath for party leadership. Became PM in 1979 and was in power for next 11 years
    • Ministers
      • Support
        • Sir Geoffrey Howe served as Trade Minister in Heaths Gov. Chancellor 1979-83, then Foreign minister til 89.
        • Nigel Lawson, financial journalist, committed Thatcherite. Howe's 2nd in treasury, took over in 83. Expansiory budgets 1987, 88 'Lawson Boom'. 1989, resigned, excessive influence from private economic adviser, Professor Alan Walters
        • Sir Keith Joseph influenced Maggie. MP for Leads North East 1956-1987. held posts in 4 PM's cabinets 1961-86. Deep economic thinker. strong views for free-market.
        • Norman Tebbit: outspoken Essex MP, trade secretary in 1st cabinet. later party Chairman. down to earth, abrasive. Thatcherite ideals. Against unions
      • Opposition
        • Internal Labour Divisions
          • Lost 4 elections
          • associated with Callaghan's 'Winter of Discontent'
          • Strong links to Unions made them unpopular because of strikes
            • Arthur Scargill was the leader of the National Union of Mineworkers. He organised a strike in 1984 that lasted for 1 year. He had an "all or nothing" approach and his failure to compromise  could have contributed to the acceleration of pit closures
          • James Callaghan: moderate
          • Micheal Foot: strong socialist opinions, couldn't gain ordinary people's votes. Out of Touch
          • Tony Benn (formerly Anthony Wedgewood Benn). Renounced peerage, House of Commons
          • Wilson
          • 'Loony Left'
            • Ken Livingstone was a member of "the looney left". The Greater London Council was eradicated by her, which he was the leader of.
          • Militant Tendency
          • Nigel Kinnock became party leader 1983
        • Formation of SDP
          • 'Gang of 4' Labour MPs broke away 1981 to Form SDP
            • Roy Jenkins, Shirley Williams, David Owen, William Rogers


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