Textiles 2

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  • Textiles 2a
    • Sustainability
      • Clothes are now being made to last longer and maintain itself
        • Is better for the environment
          • Recycling old fabrics has a better impact on the environment
            • Use less energy
          • If there in manufacturing in our country less money is used to transport items
            • Use less energy
    • Fabrics and Fibres
      • Fibres
        • Natural
          • Cotton- from cotton plant
            • Cool to wear, absobent,  soft to handle, good drape, durable, can be washed and irones
              • Dries slowly, creases easily
          • Wool- from sheep
            • Warm to wear, absorbent, breathable, repels rain, soft handle, good drape, creases drop out
              • Coarse handle, can shrink, should be dry cleaned, not durable
          • Linen- from flax plant
            • Fresh and cool to wear, very absorbent, dries quickly, good drape, durable, can be washed and ironed
              • Stiffer to handle, creases badly
          • Silk- from silkworms
            • Warm to wear, absorbent, soft handle, good lustre and drape, durable, creases drip out
              • Dry clean
        • Synthetic   (are man made)
          • Viscose- From pine trees or petro-chemicals
            • Absorbent, soft handle, good drape, can be washed and ironed
              • Low warmth, dries slowly, not durable, creases easily
          • Acrylic, Nylon and Polester- From oil and coal
            • Acrylic
              • Warm to wear, dries quickly, good drape, durable, crease resistant easy care
                • Non-absorbent, stiffer handle,
            • Nylon (Tactel)
              • Warm to wear, absorbent, breathable, repels rain, soft handle, good drape, durable, creases drop out
                • Dries slowly, coarse handle, can shrink, should be dry cleaned
              • Microfibres
                • 60-100 times finer than human hair
                  • Can be blended with synthetic or natural fibres
                    • Used for active sportwear, clothes etc
            • Polyester
              • Dries quickly, soft handle, good drape, very durable crease resistant, easy care, can be recycled
                • Low warmth, non-absorbent
              • Microfibres
                • 60-100 times finer than human hair
                  • Can be blended with synthetic or natural fibres
                    • Used for active sportwear, clothes etc
      • Stage 1- spinning, fibres spun into yarns
        • Fibres
          • Natural
            • Cotton- from cotton plant
              • Cool to wear, absobent,  soft to handle, good drape, durable, can be washed and irones
                • Dries slowly, creases easily
            • Wool- from sheep
              • Warm to wear, absorbent, breathable, repels rain, soft handle, good drape, creases drop out
                • Coarse handle, can shrink, should be dry cleaned, not durable
            • Linen- from flax plant
              • Fresh and cool to wear, very absorbent, dries quickly, good drape, durable, can be washed and ironed
                • Stiffer to handle, creases badly
            • Silk- from silkworms
              • Warm to wear, absorbent, soft handle, good lustre and drape, durable, creases drip out
                • Dry clean
          • Synthetic   (are man made)
            • Viscose- From pine trees or petro-chemicals
              • Absorbent, soft handle, good drape, can be washed and ironed
                • Low warmth, dries slowly, not durable, creases easily
            • Acrylic, Nylon and Polester- From oil and coal
              • Acrylic
                • Warm to wear, dries quickly, good drape, durable, crease resistant easy care
                  • Non-absorbent, stiffer handle,
              • Nylon (Tactel)
                • Warm to wear, absorbent, breathable, repels rain, soft handle, good drape, durable, creases drop out
                  • Dries slowly, coarse handle, can shrink, should be dry cleaned
              • Polyester
                • Dries quickly, soft handle, good drape, very durable crease resistant, easy care, can be recycled
                  • Low warmth, non-absorbent
      • Stage 2- Weaving/ Knitting, yarns become fabrics
        • Stage 3- Finishing- Fabrics are finished to make them more useful
        • Production Methods
          • One-off production
            • One product is made at a time, each is different so labour is intensive, can be made by hand or machine
          • Batch Production
            • Small quantity of identical products, also labour is intensive but used with jigs and templates for aid, can be made as often as required
          • Mass Production
            • Hundreds of identical products usually from a production line, often involves assembly of number of sub-assemblies. Usually an automation tasks, enables smaller number of workers to output productions
          • Continuous Flow
            • Thousands of identical products made
              • Production is 24/7 to eliminate extra costs and maximise production
                • Few workers are required for a highly automated process
        • Smart, Modern and Interactive
          • Maximise characteristics eg lightness, breathability, waterproof
            • Usually manufactured using microfibres
        • Care and safety labels in textiles
        • Fabric Construction
          • Fibers are spun into yarns and are then woven or knitting into fabrics
            • Synthetic are continuous
              • Natural are short staple (except silk)
            • Woven
              • Made by Weaving Yarns
                • Plain weave, Twill weave, satin weave
                  • Others are Ribbed, Basket, Jacquard, Pile
              • Properties
                • Can be woven from different desnsities
                  • Can stretch on the bias of the fabric
                    • Strongest on the grain line
                      • Edges don't fray until cut
            • Kniited
              • Wrap-knitted
                • Yarn loops vertically
                  • Hard to unravel, can be cut and sewn easily
                    • Is elastic and can hold it's shape
                      • Expensive to produce
              • Weft-Knitted
                • Can be done by hand or machine
                  • Form interlocking loop of yarn across width
                    • Great elasticity
                      • Loses shape easily
            • Non-woven
              • Use fibres not yarns
                • Felted
                  • Short staple fibres eg wool
                    • Pressed together using heat/moisture or hot needles
                      • Used for hats, snooker table covers
                • Bonded
                  • 3 methods: Dry laid, wet laid, direst spun
                    • Used for medical masks, disposable products

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