Testing for ions - summary

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  • Testing for ions
    • Positive ions
      • Flame test
        • Lithium Ions
          • Turns the flame a Crimson red
        • Sodium Ions
          • Turns the flame yellow
        • Potassium ions
          • Turns the flame a lilac/purple colour
        • Copper ions
          • Turns the flame green
        • Calcium ions
          • Turns the flame an orange/deep red
      • Adding Sodium Hydroxide
        • Copper ions
          • When added a blue precipitate is produced
        • Calcium ions
          • White precipitate that does not dissolve when more sodium hydroxide is added
        • Magnesium ions
          • White precipitate formed that does not dissolve when more sodium hydroxide is added
        • Aluminium ions
          • White precipitate forms and it dissolves when more sodium hydroxide is added
        • Iron (II) ions
          • A green precipitate formed
        • Iron (II) ions
          • A brown precipitate formed
    • Negative ions
      • Add dilute acid test (Carbonate ions test)
        • Carbonate ions
          • Bubbles of gas given off and when the gas is passed through lime water it turns cloudy so Carbon dioxide is produced
        • Only works for Carbonate ions so shows no reaction for...
          • Bromide ions
          • Sulfate ions
          • Chloride ions
          • Iodide ions
      • Add Barium chloride with hydrochloric acid ( Sulfate ion test)
        • Sulfate ions
          • A white precipitate is formed
          • Only works for sulphate ions so shows no reaction for ...
            • Chloride ions
            • Bromide ions
            • Iodide ions
            • Carbonate ions - they do not react but give off bubbles of gas when acid is added
      • Add silver nitrate with nitric acid (Halide ion test)
        • Only works for halide ions so now reaction for ...
          • Carbonate ions do not react but give off bubbles of gas when acid is added
          • Sulfate ions
        • Chloride ions
          • White precipitate is formed
        • Bromide ions
          • A cream precipitate is formed
        • Iodide ions
          • yellow precipitate is formed

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