Child Temperament and Attachment

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  • Temperament
    • Hong and Park (2012)
      • Korea
      • Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on  human development
      • temperament traits in children
        • 'neurobiological element of the indidivual
      • Individuals differ in terms of emotions, sociability and self-control
      • temperament comes from genes but is affected by development - EPIGENETIC
    • Thomas and Chess (1956)
      • 133 individuals, 84 families. Followed them from 3 months to adulthood.
      • Concluded nine dimensions to temperament and they classified it into three types
      • 40% - easy - cheerful and adapted to new things quickly
      • 10% - difficult - easily frustrated, negative in social interactions
      • 15% - fearful - low activity and withdrew in the face of new stimuli
      • 35% - not easily classified into these groups
    • Parenting and temperament
      • Caregivers need to respond  to the individual differences in a child that come from their temperment.
        • However, if a mother is stressed it can be hard to deal with a child with a difficult temperament or problem behaviours
      • Goossens and van Ijzendoorn (1990) showed that securely attached infants develop different attachments with their different caregivers, which suggests that parenting can affect a childs temperamnet.
      • Chess (1977) it is about a goodness of fit between the child's temperament and their family and others around them.
      • Fonagy et al (1991) suggest that reflective parenting can help and this means understanding self and others within issues like mental states and intentions.
        • Mothers under pressure are more likely to have securely attached children if they reflect on the child's motivations rather than their actions
      • Guyer et al (2015)  -Behavioural Inhibition, relates to social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar situations.
        • Parenting style and temperament can together affect behaviour and they also suggest that there can be impact at the neural level, affecting cognitive and emotional responses to social challenges
          • fMRI scanning - look at how different parenting styles affected neural responses when adolescents experiences peer rejection.
            • Authoritarian and authoritative parenting and 3 brain regions
              • Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, striaum and amygdala - these link to social anxiety which they felt linked to behavioral inhibition
          • They found that the young people having BI in their childhood as a temperament showed lower response in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex than those without BI in their childhood when parenting was authoritarian
            • All the participants showed decreased response in the caudate when there were higher levels of authoritative parenting. This was in response to peer rejection.
              • BI in early life seemed to show more neurobiological sensitivity to parenting styles, particularly authoritarian, or harsh, parenting


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