Teen-speak theorists

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  • Teen-speak theorists
    • Martinez
      • Teenagers use negatives more frequently than adults do, including orders, suggestions and refusals.
      • Teenagers are more direct when speaking because adults are more conscious about the way they say things as to not threaten a speaker's face.
      • Teenagers' negatives are usually informal like "no way", "dunno", "I couldn't give a toss"
      • Teenagers use multiple negation and the non-standard use of 'never'
    • Berland
      • Social class is an important factor in teenspeak.
        • 'innit' - more common in working class teens
        • "yeah" is more common in middle class teens
      • Both genders equally use "innit", "right" and "yeah."
        • "Okay" is used more by boys than girls
    • John Ayto, editor of the Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang, said fillers are a way we all stall for time when speaking and historically always have. It has nothing to do with sloppiness
    • Stenstrom et al.
      • Teens use non standard pronouns (e.g. theirselves), multiple negation, "ain't", ellipsis of auxiliary verbs, overlaps, irregular turntaking, indistinct articulation, word shortenings, teasing and name calling, verbal duelling, slang, taboo, and language mixing.
      • Focused on 14-16 year olds in London.
    • Odato
      • Children as young as 4 using "like" because they're copying adults' use of it.
      • Stage 1 - use "like" infrequently and "only a few syntactic positions" like at the start of a clause.        Stage 2 - more often in a great number of positions    Stage 3 - more frequently like before a prepositional phrase, "How yours landed like right on the target."
    • Linguist Mary Kohn argues that "our language is constantly developing and changing and becoming what it needs to be for the generation who is speaking it . There may be strong social motivations to craft an identity towards a specific social group" Such as in the past, we would use "omnibus" for "bus" - which is now strange.
    • "Most teenagers would use none of these ‘lingos’ in texts/messages because they are fundamentally wrong for the purpose of being a teenager"
    • Jean Gross - 'Teenagers are spending more time communicating through electronic media and text messaging, which is short and brief" and "only use 800 different words a day"
    • teenage use of MLE
    • Recent studies from Coventry University (2012) have reported that children can still distinguish between formal and informal speech and writing, finding no link between poor grammar whilst texting and the actual grammatical understanding of children."
    • Eckert
      • Slang is used by teenagers to connect to youth culture, and to signal coolness, toughness and attitude, setting themselves apart from the older generation.
      • Said language includes fillers.
      • Found that teenagers aren't all the same - there are large differences in social groups due to perceptions of 'coolness', their maturity and distinguishing themselves from people they do and don't like.
    • Zimmerman
      • Influenced by the media, the press, street art and graffiti, music and technology as communication.
    • de Klerk
      • Teens challenge linguistic norms, seeking to establish new identities that are different as part of their distinct social groups.
    • Appropriacy
    • Lazy?

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