Technological Change

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  • Technological Change
    • reasons for technological change
      • improve products (increase competitiveness and/or pursue growth oppurtunities
      • improve processes (increase efficiency... reduce costs, maximise sales, share, profits, profitability, return on investment
    • theories
      • Ansoff's matrix
      • Porter's 5 forces (increase in new entrants and substitutes because of tech change)
      • Porter's generic strategies
    • depends on...
      • capital/labour intesnity
      • nature of the transformation process e.g. Hanson Brick = simple, Airbus wing factory = complex
    • facts
      • UK manufacturing accounts for 70% of UK investment in R+D
      • pharmaceuticals, biotechnology + aerospace have highest R+D spending
    • oppurtunities
      • takes away constraint of location
      • 3D printing - mass customisation
      • green technologies
      • nanotechnology
    • company examples
      • Airbus + Boeing - increasingly using advanced composite materials
      • Nissan - use of computer-controlled robots has helped sunderland factory become one of the most productive in europe
      • Nissan - nanopaint - world's 1st self-cleaning car
      • JLR - 3D design technology - virtual prototypes, assess + evaluate the impact of changes to the design
      • GlaxoSmithKline - future manufacturing requires an increasingly skilled workforce to keep up with the rate of tech change.


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