Exploration of Oil: Alberta Canada

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  • Tar Sands Alberta, Canada
    • Social
      • Costs
        • Anti-Fur Campaign in the 90s caused trade to crumble
          • Increased poverty amony Indigenous people
            • Fishing Industries shut down
              • Loss of local income
                • Local economy suffers
        • Erosion of ancient traditions
        • New rare forms of cancer are appearing in Fort McMurray
          • Fish are diseased - have sores
        • Increased Immigration - 70 000 - many are from the USA
          • Creates tension among Native Canadians and Migrants
            • Increase in segragation (e.g. Polish Imigrants and the English from AS)
            • Could Increase incidents of Rape  in the area
          • Town has turned into a 'Boom Town' dominated by male workers and migrants
            • Could Increase incidents of Rape  in the area
            • Highest suicide rate for men aged 18 -24 in the country
          • Local people aren't as skilled as their migrant counterparts so could turn to crime as most other exporting industries collapse
          • Increase in drink/drug and violence related crimes
            • Town has turned into a 'Boom Town' dominated by male workers and migrants
              • Highest suicide rate for men aged 18 -24 in the country
            • Women experience the highest levels of sposal abuse in Canada
          • Town infrasturcture is ill-equipped to deal with increasing demand and pressure from increasing population 1999-2007 it increased from 36 000 - 65 000
          • Exploitation of Workers - Longs hours/ poor accommodation/ lack of job security and remote locations
        • Increase in sex shops in Fort McMurray as Prostitution is legal in Canada
          • 56% of people in a survey said that they weren't benefitting from the boom and that the wealth isn't being distributed fairly
        • Benefits
          • Created a 'Get Rich Quick' Atmosphere
          • Investment into the town and its facilities
            • Multiplier Effect
            • Improve Standard of Living
      • Political
        • Costs (before 2015)
          • NGOs e.g. Greenpeace/ Pembina Institute have called for a hault in oil exploration until environmental damage can be mitigated.
            • Greenpeace
              • civil disobedience has lead to 37 arrests and the Government of Alberta threaten to unleash counterterrorism plan if activists continue
              • On many occasions production has had to be stopped due to interference
          • First Nations aren't consulted on developments of their land
            • They argue that they aren't compensated adequately for the destruction of their land and water supplies
          • Testing on Fish is done by the Oil Companies -they say that the levels are below the set values
            • BIASED
            • Locals are outraged as the results are clearly skewed
              • BIASED
          • Goverenment claimed ownership of of Fort McMurray's Land and sold leases to 90 oil companies incl. Shell and Exxon Mobil
          • US Federal Law has banned the Government from purchasing non convetional sources, whereby the supplier produces more GHGs than their conventional counterparts
        • Benefits 2015
          • New Canadian Government - Democrats
            • Negotiate New Climate Policies which will affect the oil exploration
              • They shut down the deal for the Keystone XL Pipeline from Canada to the USA which has created a political wall
      • Economic
        • Costs
          • 25 per barrel to produce
            • 1 barrel of oil is required to extract + produce 2 barrels
              • Energy Depleting
            • Only viable when the barrels = $30+
          • Fishing Industries shut down
            • Loss of local income
              • Local economy suffers
          • Energy Depleting
        • Benefits
          • 1.3 billion barrels per day
            • 500 million profit per year
              • $3.56 billion is the Albertan's share of the profits and funds many local services (2012-13)
            • Energy Sector (Oil/Gas) contributed 20% to Canada's GDP in 2012
          • Production expected to double in next 10 years
            • Increased contribution to Exports and economy
              • North America - More energy secure?
          • 20% Canada's Exports
          • 2010 16% North America's Energy Demands were met by the Tar Sands
          • Expanded extraction area from 250m³ to 400m³ in 2013
          • Investment from foreign companies and TNCs e.g Exxon Mobil, BP, Shell
            • 160 billion in investment 2001-2012
      • 2nd Largest Oil Reserves in the World

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