Systems Life Cycle

This is just brief notes on the different areas needed to know for section 1 of the OCR ICT  course A2 exam, G063. More information can be found at http://www.teach-ict.com/as_a2_ict_new/ocr/A2_G063/A2_G063_syllabus.html

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  • Systems Life Cycle
    • Why a New System may be needed
      • Current one is out of date and not effective
      • Current System may not be able to handle current needs
      • Technology may have moved on
      • May have a competeitor system
      • Improving the quality of a task
      • New part of company need IT
    • Definition
      • System Analyst determines problem with the system
      • Feasibility
        • Constraints
          • Cost
          • Budget
          • Time
          • Skills
          • Hardware to Develop/Run
          • Software
          • Training
          • Technical Feasibility
        • Alternative Solutions
          • Company does not change anything
          • Complete Overhaul
          • Company makes alterations of half the system
    • Investigation and Analysis
      • Investigating the System
        • Current System
          • How staff/customers interact with the system
          • How other systems interact with this one
          • What is good with this system
          • What problems there are
          • What parts of the system are critical
        • Proposed New System
          • What it is expected to do
          • How the system is expected to do what it needs to
          • What people want from the system
          • What methods from the old system can be used in the new system
      • Investigation Methods
        • Face-to-Face Interviews
        • Observation
        • Questionnaires
        • Examination of Business Documents
        • Paper Trail
      • Documentation
        • System Diagrams
          • Shows relationships between various systems in the company
        • Data Flow Diagrams
          • Shows: inputs, outputs, processes and storage of data
          • The movement of data through the system
        • Process Diagrams
          • How people interact with the system
          • When, who, why, where and how they interact with the system
    • Design
      • Project Planning
        • Gantt Chart
        • Critical Path Analysis
        • Project Management Software
      • System Requirements Specification
        • Data capture methods, with inouts, outputs, processing and structure of data storage
        • User Interface, Operating System and hardware to be used in the new system
        • How information is accessed, indexed or sorted
      • Data Dictionary
        • Tables, fields, tables and realtionships
        • Constants, variables and data structure
        • Query Structures
        • Validation Rules
      • Testing Documentation
        • Test Plan
        • Test keys parts of system when the system has been developed
      • Prototyping
        • Evolutionary Prototyping
          • If there is a problem with the prototype, it is fixed on the same prototype
        • Throw Away Prototyping
          • If there is a problem with the prototype, it is 'thrown away' and a new one is created instead
        • RAD (Rapid Application Development)
          • System is just made, and done as fast as possible
    • Implementation
      • Tables and Data Structures
      • Validation Rules
      • Data Capture/Input Forms
      • Automated processing routines (e.g. macros)
      • Queries
      • The User Interface
      • Printing Outputs
    • Testing
      • Testing Team
        • Testers
        • User Testers
      • Test Plan
      • Test Selection (Numbers of Tests)
      • Test Data
        • Normal
        • Erroneous
        • Extreme
      • Iteration or Looping Around
        • Identifies if there is  problem with the user requirements specification
      • Factors Affecting Testing
        • How critical the system is
        • Time available
        • External Constraints
    • Installation
      • Direct
        • New system replaces old
      • Pilot
        • New system  is installed in one area of organisation
      • Parallel
        • New and Current system work alongside each other
      • Phased
        • New system is introduced in stages as they are completed
      • Staff Training Needed
    • Evaluation
      • Does the system meet the requirements?
      • Does the system solve the problem?
      • Lessons learnt whilst creating the new system
      • Maintenance and support needed to run the system
    • Maintenance
      • Corrective
        • Problems are fixed/corrected
      • Perfective
        • Little details are altered
      • Adaptive
        • System is 'adapted' to fit new needs of the customer, or other external changes
    • Documentation
      • User Documentation
        • User Guide for the user to understand the system
      • Technical Documentation
        • Documentation for anyone maintaining and fixing the system
      • On Screen Documentation
        • E.g. help message, pop ups, help buttons

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