Systematic reviews

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  • Systematic Reviews
    • PICO
      • Population
      • Intervention
      • Comparison
      • Outcome
    • GRADE
      • Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation
        • Grade down
          • Imprecision
            • 95% confidence interval
              • Clinically important benefit
              • Clinically important harm
              • No clinically important difference
          • Indirectness
            • PICO
            • Does it measure what it is supposed to?
          • Inconsistency
            • Heterogeneity
              • Eye ball test
                • Overlap of confidence intervals
              • Chi2 p-value
                • Probability it is by chance
              • I2
                • % it is not by chance
          • Risk of bias
            • Generation of randomisation
            • Allocation concealment
            • Blinding
            • Incomplete outcome data
            • Selective outcome bias
          • Publication bias
            • Funnel Plots
              • Asymmetry: Bite taken out of it?
        • Grade up
          • Large effect
          • Confounders
          • Dose response
        • Certainty
          • 4. High = Further research unlikely to change confidence in results
            • 3. Moderate = Further research is likely to have an impact on results
              • 2. Low = Further research is very likely to have an important impact on results
                • 1. Very low = Very uncertain about results
      • From evidence to recommendations
        • Balance of benefit and harm
        • Feasibility
        • Resource implications/ costs
        • Recommendation
    • Bias
      • Generation of randomised sequence
        • Flipping a coin
        • Computer generated sequence
        • Random number tables
      • Allocation concealment
        • Patients and investigators don't who receives which intervention is being allocated
        • Sequentially numbered opaque envelopes
        • Identical containers
      • Blinding
        • Outcome not influenced
      • Incomplete outcome data
        • Missing data
      • Selective outcome bias
        • Selective outcome reporting
    • Structure
      • Background and objectives
        • Eligibility criteria
          • Methods
            • Description of included trials
              • Risk of bias
                • Outcome data analysis and results
                  • Discussion and conclusion

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