Sociology SY2 Education

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  • SY2 Education
    • Cultural deprivation
      • Reay: mothers make cultural capital work for children - succeed more the more mothers have cultural capital. m/c mothers have knowldge & skills to help children effectively
      • Bourdieu: success in education = superior qualifications = professional & powerful occupations & careers. w/c failure fault of education system as devalues knowledge & skills of w/c
      • Bernstein: w/c speak in restricted language code - education & jobs geared toward elaborated
      • Barry Sugarman: working class values: immediate gratification, present time orientation, collectivism, fatalism
      • JWB Douglas: children from w/c background less likely to stay on at school, affected by health, family size, quality of school
    • Functionalist
      • Young: talent + motivation + equal opportunity = qualifications + high position in society, meritocracy
      • Durkheim: how norms & values passed on, people part of more than individual social groups
      • Davis & Moore: hierarchy of ability, society sorts it's members into different positions
      • Parsons: bridge between childhood & adulthood, compounds primary socialisation
    • Marxist  perspectives:
      • Willis: stability of the system is based on lower classes' reversal of the dominant values, ideology prevents the lad's anti-school subculture from becoming a real oppositional force which can be channeled into active social change
      • Althusser: part of ISA, maintains, justifies & reproduces class inequalities, hidden curriculum
      • Bowles & Gintis: correspond ence theory, pupils motivated by rewards, conformity  + obedience = sucess
    • Anti-school subcultures
      • Hargreaves: students labelled as troublemakers banded together to form anti-school subculture
        • Hargreaves: how often label used, if student accepts, in public/private, if other teachers use it
      • Sewell: conformists: education route to success, innovators: anti-school but careful not to get into trouble, rebels: education worthless
      • Willis: rejection of school prepares for semi/unskilled work
      • Mac an Ghail: macho lads - 'lads' achievers - do well enterprisers - high skilled sector of labour market
    • Ethnicty
      • Connelly: teachers more willing to critise behaviour of black boys, took positive steps to encourage participation in school activities, South Asian boys immature  instead of deviant, South Asian girls most hard working & obedient, attitude to wrok not significantly different to other girls - low status - seen as feminie but culture too alien to be considered for girlfriends
      • Mirza: black girls do better than black boys & white pupils - rejected labels
      • Gillborn & Youndell: racism still affects kids, black boys seen as having little chance of succeeding - in lower sets - behaviour perceived as threatening
      • Coard: west indian children told their way of speaking inferior, white = good, black = bad, content of education ignores black people - leads to low esteem
    • Gender
      • Sue Sharpe: marriage, children jobs : jobs, marriage, children
      • Sewell: status & street cred gained from not working, reading unmasculine, teachers have lower expectations, girls & boys do leisure differently
      • Willis: boys form anti-school subcultures instead of school
      • Mitsos & Browne: teachers expect a lower standard of work, more likely to disrupt classes, want to appear macho, lack motivation, overestimate ability
      • Barber: boys less positive about education, overconfidence blinds them to the future, dismiss as not trying
      • Mac an Ghail: crisis of masculinity, decline of breadwinner role, education waste of time, status frustration
    • Material deprivation
      • Callendar & Jackson: poor kids trapped in bad schools - can't afford to move  - marketisation - w/c afraid of student debt
      • Smith & Noble: barriers: health, private education, computor, materials, bad schools
      • UK uni: if work 15 hrs/week, 1/3 less likely to get 1:1
      • Reay: w/c choose local unis & financial contrainsts affect FE & HE
      • CPAG: only 6% fsm go to college poor 3 times more likely not to get 5A*-C: hungry & tired, no revision guides, no internet, no good schools, teachers dk how to help
    • Labelling
      • Hargreaves: how often label used, if student accepts, in public/private, if other teachers use it
      • Rosenthal & Jacobson: 'Pygmalion in the classroom'
      • Keddie: children from 'white collar' backgrounds in top sets etc. w/c kids closer to 'ideal' pupil, given more access to knowledge
      • Lacey: not all pupils want to conform to ideal pupil, form subculture instead
      • Mirza: black girls do well to spite teachers - rejection of labels
      • Ball: top sets warmed up
      • Mac an Ghail: black girls in 6th form angry about setting & formed support groups
      • Cicourel & Kitsuse: placed in sets on appearance & clothing

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