Swing and Big Band

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  • Swing and Big Band
    • Melody/ Techniques
      • Written arrangements
      • Only lead soloist improvises
      • More technically difficult melodies
    • Harmony/ Tonality
      • Walking double bass line
      • More varied modulations
      • Classical techniques e.g. circle of 5ths
      • More chromatic harmonies
        • Extended chords e.g. 7th/ 9th/ 11th/ diminished/ augmented
    • Timbres
      • Much larger ensembles than anything from before
      • Saxophones as leading soloist
      • Accompaniment instruments: double bass, piano, drumkit, guitar
      • Melodies played by trumpets, saxophones, trombones
      • Jungle-style drums
      • Sound effects
        • Wah-wah mute
        • Plunger mute
        • Growling
        • Horsewhinny
    • Textures
      • No more polyphonic improvisation
      • Melody dominated homophony
      • Antiphony
    • Example - Sing Sing Sing Benny Goodman 1937
      • Starts with drum solo
        • Ends with short drum coda
      • Off-beat accents
      • Repetitive main motif
      • 32 bar song form (AABA)
      • Based on solos
      • Includes clarinet (Goodman) as main soloist
      • Heavy syncopation
      • A minor
      • Ensemble/ chordal unison
      • Imitative texture 4'10"
      • 9 choruses
    • Structure
      • 32 bar ballad form
      • Head and chorus arrangement
    • Rhythm
      • Emphasis on off-beats
      • SWING!!!
      • Hi-hat emphasises swing rhythm
      • Syncopation

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