Sustainale Yield - Southern Ocean and CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe

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    • Concept of Sustainable Yield
      • Maximum human population that can exist in equilibrium with the available resources
        • developed to manage wildlife and fisheries to estimate carrying capacity
      • a certain level of use (yielf) e.g. logging, fishing, hunting is sustainable
      • maximum sustainable yield for a species/ecosystem = the level at which utilisation by humans does not lead to long term decline in species numbers
      • BUT taking the maximum sustainable yield leaves no room for error (or climate change, disease etc) and will lead to huge reduction in numbers/ extinction
      • Optimum yield is lower than maximum yield, and safer in terms of long term sustainability
    • Sustainable yield management in Southern Ocean
      • southern ocean wraps around Antarctica and accounts for 10% of all oceans
      • has suffered over-exploitation since the late 18th century, including sealing, pelagic whaling, and overexploitation of fish species
      • collapse of many fisheries (e.g. north sea) throughout the world has meant that the relatively unexploited southern ocean is now seen the last fronier for global fisheries
        • severe currents - dangerous
        • inaccessable
        • away from most developed countries
      • the oceans are now fished sustainabl after a model was used to calculate the sustainable fishing yield
        • SINGLE SPECIES APPROACH sets limits for harvesting individual species that are indefinitely sustainable
        • ECOSYSTEM APPROACH involves considering harvested species both on their own and in relation to dependant species and whole environment
        • PRECAUTIONARY APPROACH aim to model consequences of any planned expansion of catches before it is permitted
          • 1.) The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (1946)
          • 2.) The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1978)
          • 3.) The Convention of the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980)
        • wHALES - The Internation Whaling Commission agreed in 1982 to impose a moratorium on whaling beginning in 1985-86 season, although despite opposition Japan has continued whaling under a special permit for scientific whaling
        • SEALS - The antarctic Seals Convention, 1978 to protect seals and manage commercial exploitation within the Antarctic Treaty area, provides for a permissible catch between September and February in each year of crabeater, leopard and Weddell seals and forbids the killing or capture of Ross, southern elephant and fur seals. HOWEVER there has been no sealing at all since its introduction/
        • MARINE RESOURCES - CCAMLR, 1982, was negotiated to ensure that the needs of the whole marine ecosystem were taken into account in managing, amoung others, the expanding krill (keystone species) fishery. the convention was a major advance in the conservation and management of marine species in the Southern Ocean, because it extended beyond the Antarctic Treaty area including four undisputed national territories
    • CAMPFIRE, Zimbabwe
      • Shows how the concept of sustainable yield can be developed to provide sustainable livelihoods for local people
      • introduced mid 1980s, Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources, programme designed to assist rural develpopment and conservation.
        • aims to help people manage natural resourcs so that the whole ecosystem benefits
        • helps provide legal ways for communities to raise money by using local, natural resources in a sustainable way
      • works with people who live in these communal lands, supporting the use of wildlife as an important natural resource
      • BOTTOM UP APPROACH - consults the local people that it would affect. Helps people manage the environment in both sustainable and appropriate ways
      • 12% of Zimbabwe protected as conservation areas or National Parks - some species have prospered so much that they are causing serious environmental damage e.g. elephants have killed over 100 people in Kariba since 1980.
        • some species are suffering genetic problems because of inbreeding
        • animals frequently rom outside Park boundaries, destroying crops and killing livestock and sometimes people
          • causes CONFLICTS between local people and National Park staff
        • people no longer permitted to hunt the animals and harvest the plants found inside protected areas
        • local people see wildlife as a nuisance instead of a resource
      • SUSTAINABLE because encourages local communities to make ttheir own decisions about wildlife management and control
        • HARVESTING NATURAL RESOURCES - e.g. crocodile eggs, river sand and timber
        • TOURISM - in the past most revenue from tourists has not gone to local communities. 1990s- pilot projects set up and 5 districts now benefit from tourism
          • development of specialist areas e.g. culture tourism, bird watching and visits to hot springs are planned
          • some LOCAL PEOPLE are EMPLOYED DIRECTLY as guides or run local facilities for the tourists
        • so that sustainable limit is not exceeded
        • each village taking part in the CAMPFIRE project (now covering 26 districts) has a wildlife committee responsible for counting animals, anti-poaching activites, conflicts which arise through 'roblem animals' and environmental education
        • fame scouts are trained to help stop poaching and manage wildlife
      • how is the MONEY USED?
        • 80% given directly to local communities who should collectively decide how it should be spent
        • 20% used by the District Councils for administration and managing the local CAMPFIRE projects
        • DISTRICT COUNCILS - over US$1.4 million was raised by 26 districts which ran CAMPFIRE projects in 1993
        • general community e.g. building and equipping clinics and schools, constructing fences, drilling wells, building roads, paying guides and funding local sports teams
        • directly to local people to buy maize and other foodstuffs in drought years
      • Since 1989 over 250,000 Zimbabweans have been involved in CAMPFIRE projects


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