Reflective Log

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  • Sustainability
    • Society
      • Key Issues
        • Poverty: Health
          • Relevant Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
            • Child Mortaility
            • Disease
            • Underweight children
            • Sanitation
            • Maternal & reproductive health
        • Equity
          • Inequality between genders
          • Corruption
          • Regional Disparity
          • Enforced under-development
        • Education
        • Population
          • Global population passes 7 billion between 2011 and 2012
          • Website
        • Consumption
          • "if current population & consumption trends continue, humanity will need the equivalent of two Earths to support it by 2030" (Global Footprint Network, 2012)
          • World Overshoot Day??
      • Why has this happened?
        • Models of development
        • Poor under-standing of poverty
        • Religious and cultural traditions
      • What can be done?
        • Health Campaigns
        • Improved Sanitation
        • Access to clean water
        • Vaccinations
        • Funding of schools
        • Increasing food production
        • Green Economy
        • Awareness
      • What is being done?
        • Every Woman Every Child
          • Aims to mobilize and intensify global action to improve health of woman and children
        • Beyond 2015
          • Aims to build a framework for after 2015
      • Sustainable Development Goals by 2030
        • Provide quality education & life-long learning opportunities
        • Healthy lives for all
        • End hunger, improve nutrition & sustainable agriculture
        • End poverty everywhere
        • Gender equality
        • Sustainable and sanitary water for all
        • Sustainable energy
        • Inclusive & sustainable economic growth
        • Sustainable infrastructure & industriali-zation
        • Reduced inequality between countries
        • Sustainabl eand safe cities
        • Sustainable consumption
        • Tackle climate change
        • Sustainable use of oceans, seas & marine resources
        • Protect & promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, halt desertifi-cation, land degradation and biodiversity loss
        • Achieve peaceful and inclusive societies
        • Improve impletation of sustainable development
      • What can businesses do? Action Areas
        • Responsi-bility (CSR)
        • Community Engagement
        • Employment: Employ locals
        • Training of local staff
        • Knowledge Exchange
        • Real Oppportunity
    • Environment
      • Water
        • Lack of drinking water & Sanitation
        • Water resources are becoming scarce
        • Water withdrawals for irrigation represent 66% of total
        • Increased water use = effect on aquatic ecosystems
        • Contributing factors
          • Poor management
          • Population growth
          • Urbanisation
          • Intensive agriculture
          • Changes in lifestyle
        • What is being done?
          • Hydrating Humanity is a faith-based non-profit organization that works primarily in East Africa partnering with local people
            • Water provided for all
            • Sanitary water
        • Virtual Water
          • This is the water used to produce the food we eat
          • Some countries have seriously considered the ramifications (Israel)
      • Carbon
      • Biodiversity
        • Biodiversity loss = reduced efficiency by which ecological communities.
          • Capture biologically essential resources
          • Produce Biomass, decompose & recycle biologically essential nutrients
        • Biodiversity increases the stability of ecosystem functions
        • The impact of biodiversity is nonlinear & saturating, therefore change accelerates as biodiversity loss increases
        • Diverse communities are more productive
        • Research
          • The impacts of diversity loss on ecological processes might be sufficiently large to rival the impacts of other global drivers of environmen- tal change
          • Diversity effects grow stronger with time
          • Maintaining multiple ecosystem process at multiple places & times require higher levels of biodiversity
          • The ecological consequence of biodiversity loss can be predicted from evolutionary history
        • Global biodiversity action- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
          • Opened for signitures at Earth Summit 1992
          • To date there are 193 Parties
          • Seen as key international instrument for sustainable development
          • Goal 1: Conservation of biodiversity
          • Goal 2: Sustainable use of Biodiversity
          • Goal 3: fair & equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources
        • Key contributer: Deforestation
        • Forests
          • Value of Forests
            • Existence
            • Consumptive
            • Productive
            • Biodiversity Protection
            • Recreactional, scientific, educational & Scenic values
            • Environmen- tal
              • Watershead protection
              • Regulating Macro & Local climates
              • Storing/ cycling essential nutrients
          • Threats to Forests
            • Logging
            • Plantations: rubber
            • Agriculture
            • Cattle Rearing
            • Fuelwood collection
            • Development/ Over population
            • Poverty
            • Cocaine Production
            • Climate Change
    • Production + Consumption
      • Definition: Reducing waste & Emissions without sacrificing quality of life
      • Raw Materials
        • Use less: reduce costs & impact
        • Less Impact: Reduce travel time?
        • Recyclable: Substitute materials so they can be recycled
      • Seven Deadly Wastes
        • Over- production
        • Waiting
        • Transport
        • Motion
        • Over- Processing
        • Inventory
        • Defects
      • Retail
        • Packaging: Can you protect & present product with less material
        • Distribution: Reduce distance travelled?
      • Use
        • Durability: Easier to repair
        • Consumable: Increase lifespan?
        • Marketing: Use lifespan factors to market product
        • Human Factors: can design help consumers use product more sustainably
      • Manufacture
        • More efficient use of natural resources/ recycling of resources
        • Reduce or recyle waste
        • Simplification- simpler designs = fewer resources
        • Reduce energy use/ more energy efficent
        • Lean production
          • Eliminating waste from manufactur- ing process
      • End of Life
        • Reuse
        • Recycle
        • Reduce amount to landfill
    • Carbon + Energy
      • Climate Change
        • Sea Levels
          • Tempertures rise =
            • Sea absorbs heat from the atmoshere & expands =
              • Sea level rises
        • Glaciers
          • Entire Western Antarctic ice sheet melts =
            • Sea levels rise by about 3.2 metres
        • Flooding
          • Major floods used to occur every 100 years on average
            • May now be every 10-20 years
          • Flooding season may become longer
          • Now may flood in places it has never flooded before
        • Other effects likely to happen
          • Less frosty days & cold spells
          • Increase in heat waves & hot spells
          • Greater risk of drought in continental areas
          • Increase in extreme precipitation events
          • Hurricanes more intense
          • More intense Asian summer monsoon
          • Religional variation in temperature changes
            • Increases higher over land & northern hemisphere
            • Increases over North Atlantic will be small
      • Policy & Action
        • Types of energy activity that communities can do
          • 1. Generating Energy
          • 2. Reducing energy use
          • 4. Managing energy
          • 3. Purchasing energy
        • Kyoto Protocol
          • International agreement linked to the United Nations Frameword Convention on Climate Change
          • Internationally binding emission reduction targets
          • First commitment period 2008-2012
          • Commited to reduce GHG to an average of 5% against 1990 levels
        • "Doha Amendment to the Koyoto Protocol" was adopted in Dec 2012
          • Second commitment period 2013-2020
          • Commited to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18% below 1990 levels
      • What can businesses do?
        • Carbon Reporting
  • Sustainable Development Goals by 2030
    • Provide quality education & life-long learning opportunities
    • Healthy lives for all
    • End hunger, improve nutrition & sustainable agriculture
    • End poverty everywhere
    • Gender equality
    • Sustainable and sanitary water for all
    • Sustainable energy
    • Inclusive & sustainable economic growth
    • Sustainable infrastructure & industriali-zation
    • Reduced inequality between countries
    • Sustainabl eand safe cities
    • Sustainable consumption
    • Tackle climate change
    • Sustainable use of oceans, seas & marine resources
    • Protect & promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, halt desertifi-cation, land degradation and biodiversity loss
    • Achieve peaceful and inclusive societies
    • Improve impletation of sustainable development
  • Manufacture
    • More efficient use of natural resources/ recycling of resources
    • Reduce or recyle waste
    • Simplification- simpler designs = fewer resources
    • Reduce energy use/ more energy efficent
    • Lean production
      • Eliminating waste from manufactur- ing process

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