Surgery

3 main problems within surgery

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  • Surgery
    • Bleeding
      • Doctor cut into patient they could end up killing them from blood loss
        • Made  them only use surgery as a last resort
        • Didn't operate inside the body
      • Blood transfusions
        • Used blood from people
          • Some survived
          • Many didn't = blood groups
        • Blood clotted making transfusion impossible
        • SOLUTIONS
          • 1901 = 4 blood groups discovered
          • Found how to store blood
            • Corpulses seperated from blood
            • Add Saline and blood ready
    • Pain
      • People died from the shock
      • SOLUTIONS
        • Ether
          • made patient cough
          • Flammable
          • Used by Queen Victoria
        • Laughing gas
          • Didn't work for everyone
        • Choloform
          • Simpson tested on friends = all passed out
          • OPPOSITION
            • Army =Better for a man to die screaming than quietly
            • Church= woman should suffer child birth -> God
            • Doctors= patients died -> dosage controll
    • Infection
      • Doctors didn't clean clothes for next operation
        • more blood = better doctor
        • Pass on infection from patient to patient
      • If survived operation they would still die from infection
      • Lister
        • Read Pasteurs Germ theroy
        • Carbolic acid
          • Invented spray that could be use in operating theatres
          • OPPOSITION
            • NEW
            • Didn't believe in germs
            • Time consuming
            • Irritation on hands
        • Patients dying decreased

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