Surgery

All about the impact of factors on improvements in surgery throughout time.

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  • Surgery
    • Science and Technology
      • Prehistoric
        • No surgery due to lack of understanding and proper technology
      • Egypt
        • No surgery due to lack of understanding and proper technology
        • Sharper bronze instruments for surgical procedures
      • Greece
        • Used opium, alcohol, wine and vinegar during surgery to reduce death rates
          • No understanding of why
      • Rome
        • Continued improvement in equipment
        • Still lacked knowledge and understanding to carry out internal surgery
    • Religion
      • Egypt
        • No internal surgery due to preservation for the afterlife
      • Middle Ages
        • Used the Zodiac Man to identify the best times for surgery based on Planets
    • Key Individuals
      • Middle Ages
        • Hugh and Theodric challenged Galen and said to remove pus with wine
        • Henri de Mondeville wrote a textbook and told students to bathe and clean wounds and seal them up quickly
      • Renaissance
        • Pare
          • "Ten Books on Surgery"
          • Changed gunshot wound treatment - egg yolks, rose oil and turpentine
          • Ligatures to stop bleeding - made of silk threads
            • Took too long and wasn't quick enough - could carry deeper infection into wounds
          • Designed and made false limbs for soldiers
      • Industrial (19th Century)
        • Humphry Davy 1799 - Laughing gas for surgery - reduced pain by small amounts
        • J. R. Liston 1847 - Ether - irritated eyes, could cause lung problems, easily flammable
        • James Simpson 1847 - Chloroform as an anaesthetic. Successful, but tasted bad and caused sickness. Dosage could not be controlled so often caused deaths
          • John Snow created an inhaler to control dosage
        • Semmelweiss - recommended hand washing in hospitals due to the number of deaths by childbirth
        • Joseph Lister - used the ideas of the germ theory. Suggested using carbolic acid to clean wounds and wash hands and instruments
        • William Halstead created rubber gloves for use during surgery as well as gowns and masks (1887)
          • ASEPTIC SURGERY
            • Joseph Lister - used the ideas of the germ theory. Suggested using carbolic acid to clean wounds and wash hands and instruments
      • Twentieth Century
        • Wilhelm Rontgen 1895 - discovered x-rays and made machines
          • Marie Curie got mobile x-rays for battlefields - petite Curies
            • Marie Curie discovered radiation therapy in 1906 - helped diagnose and treat cancer
        • Karl Landsteiner discovered blood groups in 1901, making blood transfusions possible
        • Marie Curie discovered radiation therapy in 1906 - helped diagnose and treat cancer
        • Helmuth Wesse discovered injectable anaesthetics allowing precise dosages
        • Archibald McIndoe - over 4000 plastic surgery operations in WWII - reconstructing faces and hands
        • Christian Barnard carried out the first heart transplant in 1967. Many other transplants folowed
    • War
      • Rome
        • Gained more experience from wars due to expanding empire
      • Middle Ages
        • Continued improvements in techniques and instruments
        • John Bradmore created metal forceps to pull arrows from wounds and smothered wounds in honey to stop infection
      • Renaissance
        • Pare made false limbs for soldiers and ligatures to stop bleeding
      • Twentieth Century
        • Increased need for x-rays during WW1 as there were deeper injuries from shrapnel
    • Attitudes
      • Industrial
        • General conservative attitude towards anaesthetics
    • Communication

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