Supranational Institutions

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  • Supranational Institutions
    • European Union
      • Is a trading bloc which is a political/ economic union - with it's own parliament.
      • 28 sovereign member states but their integration in EU can bring challenges to their individual power/ autonomy.
      • There are benefits of integration which protect states' interests.
        • Ability to address transnational issues such as air/water pollution and international crime.
        • But these same states are required to implement EU laws and decisions even if they don't vote for them.
          • They can't pass laws in the interests of their own state if they conflict with those of EU.
            • And 19 members of the Eurozone have additional financial restrictions such as being unable to set their own interest rates, and being forced to accept harsh austerity measures and contribute to large bail-out funds,
        • Economic and trade advantages such as protection of industry by common tariff and access to a large European market.
      • Other aspects of EU membership which limit sovereign power of individual member states include;
        • Enforced fishing quotas in the Common Fisheries Policy.
        • Compliance with EU regulations governing Basic Payments Schemes and Countryside Stewardship under Common Agricultural Policy.
    • United Nations
      • 193 sovereign states in UN are also a member of General Assembly.
      • The UN with help from Security Council has the right to sanction intervention.
        • These norms are increasingly applied by international community when a state fails to protect its citizens.
      • General Assembly World Summit in 2005 - UN resolution reaffirmed the primary responsibility to protect its citizens still lies with individual state, but intervention should apply in instances of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing.
        • International community will intervene in a state without it's consent only when that state is allowing violation of human rights to occur or if it commits them itself.

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