Superpower players

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  • Superpower players
    • World Trade Organisation (WTO)
      • Set up in 1995, and based in Geneva, the WTO covers trade in merchandise goods, services, such as telecommunications and banking. The WTO negotiates new trade agreements and makes sure that its members keep to the rules.
      • Decisions are genrally taken by 'mutual' consent- with the biggest markets usually deciding the outcome. Poorest countries feel the WTO is a rich man's club and that it favours the EU and USA.
        • e.g Ghana feels cheated by the WTO.
      • Subsidies: The WTO is currently focusing on helping the worlds poor by reducing and removing farmers subsidies - grants are paid to farmers to encourage production.
        • The system allows the EU and the USA to spend nearly $400b annually on farm subsidies. However, 50% of EU subsidies go to largest 1% of producers.
    • World Bank
      • The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries. Its official goal is the reduction of povery.
      • It's headquarters are in Washington D.C and comprises of 188 countries.
      • Established in 1944, it was set up to finance development and its first loan was to post-war France. It also focuses on natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies.
        • P- By 1950s it bagan to finance the development of ex-colonies. M- USA has 16% of the votes and the wealthiest economies have most power.
    • The UN
      • Since 1945 the UN has assissted in negotiating 170 peace settlements that ended regional conflicts.
        • Headquarters are in New York.
        • Has 193 members.
      • UN Security Council
        • In charge of maintaining international peace and security operations, international sanctions and authorisation of military action.
      • UN General Assembly
        • Ambassadors from each country meet to discuss international issues and try to resolve disputes by political means.
        • To make sure all areas of the planet receive equal involvement the presidency rotates each year between 5 regions: Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa.
    • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
      • They create a fund (mostly paid by MEDCs) that is loaned out to countries who are in debt and need help.
        • 185 members.
        • Headquarters in Washington.
      • World's leading 21 economies invest most of the money and control 70% of the votes between them.
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
      • Set up during the cold war to safeguard the freedom and security of its members by political and military means.
      • Headquarters in Brussels.
        • 26 members.


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