summarising casey study into delay of gratification

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  • caseys study into delay of gratification
    • aim: to investigate using a longitudinal study if delay of gratification is the same at adulthood (40s) as it was in childhood (4)
    • sample: started off with 562 ps in the 60s/70s at the age of 4 from Stanford university nursery school
      • ps were then given a questionnairewhen they were in their 20s and 30s
        • remaining 59 ps at 40 years old participated in experiment 1 in 2011
          • only 27 took part in experiment 2
            • sample attrition occurred
      • opportunity sampling
      • the marshmallow test
    • exp1: IV= high delayer or low delayer DV= incorrect or correct answer and reaction time
      • hot go/no-go task=  involved emotions, ps were asked to click when they see a certain emotion e.g. happy expression and not to click on the other expression e.g. fearful expression and vice versa
        • cool go/no-go task= involved gender, ps were asked to click when they see a certain gender and not when they see the other gender and vice versa
          • faces were shown for 0.5 seconds with 1 second breaks
      • exp2:13 male and 14 female, IV= high delayer or low delayer DV= delay of gratification (FMRI)
        • ps were asked to carry out the hot task only and brain activity was observed as they carried out in a FMRI scanner
        • results: casey found low delayers had more activity in the ventral striatum (rewards) than the inferior frontal gyrus (self control) when carrying out the hot task (specifically when asked not to click on the happy expressions) than high delayers. they could not resist the urge
      • results: casey found low delayers found it difficult to resist the temptation of clicking on the happy expressions and made more errors on the hot task than high delayers ut there was no difference in reaction times
    • ventral striatum= the hot part of the brain as it excites our behaviour and facilitates our rewards involves desires and emotions
      • inferior frontal gyrus= the cool part of the brain as does not excite us it allows us to respond correctly to facial expressions
    • both quasi research method and both independent measures
    • conclusions: casey concluded that resisting temptation is natural
      • our ability to delayers gratification may be the same in adulthood as it was in childhood
        • gives evidence for the functions of the inferior  frontal gyrus and ventral striatum
    • this study falls within the biological area of psychology as it is investigating what specific  regions of the brain have an effect on our ability to delay gratification
      • links to the key theme regions of the brain as it is revealing there are two REGIONS OF THE BRAIN that effect our ability to delayers gratification and resist temptation
      • the biological area of psychology assumes behaviour is explained by physiological process and the workings of the brain such as brain damage and the regions of the brain

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