subcultural theory in crime and deviance

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  • Subcultural theories of Crime and Deviance
    • Functionalist
      • Cohen (1971)
        • Status Frustration- is a sense of frustration within an individual or group who is denied status within society
        • He argued that working-class youths believe in success but because of the failure in education and living in deprived areas means that they are unable to achieve these goals through approved means
        • Because of status frustration they adapted to the situation by developing an alternative set of values, this creates a delinquent subculture
        • This means that- stealing replaces hard work and vandalism replaces respect for property
      • Cloward and Ohlin
        • he said that there are 3 different subcultures that young people could enter
          • criminal subcultures-This emerges in areas where there is a lot of organized crime. This provides criminal role models that teach delinquents how to commit crime. They normally commit crimes that have financial yield
            • utilitarianism- crimes that are done for money
          • conflict subcultures- emerges in areas with little organized crime. people focuse on gang violence
          • Retreatists subculture- these are people who have failed to commit criminal acts. that leads them to retreat to drugs and alcohol
      • Walter B Miller 1950s
        • He said that deviant subcultures do not arrive from the inability to succeed
          • crime is a result of lower-class subcultures with different values
        • Toughness- important trait but manifests as violence
        • smartness- outwit people. pickpocket and con in smart ways
        • excitement- search for the thrill. gambling or sexual adventures
        • autonomy- important not to be pushed around
        • fate- little chance of overcoming there wider fate that awaits them.
        • focal concerns - things people want to achieve


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