subcultral strain theories

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  • subcultral strain theories
    • recent strain theories
      • argued that young people  may pursue a variety  of goals other  than money and success these could include popularity with peers autonomy from adults  or the desire to be treated like real men for boys
        • failure to achieve these goals may result in delinquency
        • they argue that mmiddle class juveniles  too may have problems achieving such goals thus offering an explanation for middle class delinquency
    • cloward and ohlin three subcultures
      • according to cloward and ohlin the different subcultural responces occur is not only because of inability to acess to the legitimate oppertunity structure but also unequal acess to illegitimate oppertunity structures
        • e.g. not everyone who fails by ligitimate means such as schooling then has an equal chance of becoming a sucessful safecracker
      • criminal subcultures
        • provides youths with an apprenticeships for a career in utilitarian crime
        • they only arise in the nabourhoods where there is already a longstanding and stable local criminal culture with an astablished hierarchy of professional adult crime
          • this allows the young to associate with adult criminals who can select those with the right aptitudes and abilities and provide them with training and role models as well as oppertunities for employment on the criminal career ladder
      • conflict subcultures
        • arises in a neighbourhood which has a high population turn over this causes high levels of social disorganisation
        • the only illigitimate oppertunities available are within loosley organised gangs
          • violence provides a release for young men frustration at their blocked oppertunities
      • retreatist subcultures
        • in any neighbourhood not everyone who asspires to be a professional criminal or a gang leader acutally sucseeds just as in the legitimate oppertunity structure
        • according to cloward and ohlin those who fail both legitimately and illegitmately May turn to illegal drugs
      • ignores  the  crimes  of  the  wealthy
      • the  subcultures are to fixed there is to bigger spaces and no overlap which some subcultures may fall into
    • cohen and status frustration
      • deviance is mainly a lower class phenomenon
      • cohen focuses on deviance among working class boys
        • he argues that they face anomie in the middle class dominated school system
        • they suffer fro cultral deprivation and lack the skills to achieve
          • this leaves them at the bottom of the offical status hierarchy
        • being unable to achevie status by lagitimate means the boys suffer status frustration
        • they face problems of adjustment to the low status given to them by mainstream society
        • in cohens view they resolve their frustration by rejecting mainstream middle class values and they turn instead ton other boys in the same situation forming or joining a dilinquent subculture
      • according to cohen the subculture 's values are characterised by spite malice hositlity and contempt for the outside
      • cohens theory offers and explaination for group deivince among the working class
      • cohens ideas of stauts frustration value  inverstion and alternative status heirarchy provides different reasions to turn to deviance other than economical need
      • however cohen assumes that working class boys start off with the same goals  as middle class children
    • subcultral strain theories see crime and deviance as the product of a dilnquent subculture with different values from mainstream society
    • they say that subcultures provide an alternative oppertunity structure for those who can't achieve by legitimate means
      • subcultral strain theories see crime and deviance as the product of a dilnquent subculture with different values from mainstream society
  • they face problems of adjustment to the low status given to them by mainstream society

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