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  • Subcortex: brain structures below the cerebral cortex - damage can be fatal - controls vital functions
    • Hindbrain/ brainstem
      • Medulla: controls reflex control of vital life functions
        • Reticular formation : lies inside the medulla; associated with attention, alertness and some reflexes; prioritises msgs to the brain, modifies outgoing commands to the body
          • Reticular activating system: activates cerebral cortex
      • Pons: bridge b/w medulla and other areas; influences sleep and arousal
      • Cerebellum: regulates muscle tone, posture, muscular coordination; damage can lead to difficulty in walking, standing etc
    • Forebrain:
      • Thalamus: relays sensory info to the cerebral cortex; damage can cause loss of sense except smell
      • Hypothalamus: regulates emotional behavior and basic motives - last place where many behaviors are organised
      • Limbic system: group of hypothalamus,parts of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus - responsible for producing emotion and motivated behavior
        • Amygdala: associated with fear responses ; helps us react to dangerous stimuli before we understand; rapid response aids survival
        • Hippocampus:associated with storing memories ; helps navigate through space
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