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  • Studying Society II
    • Interviews
      • Structure (formal) interviews. Based on standard interview schedule.
        • Advantages
          • Can see differences in opinions or attitudes between interviewees'.
          • Compare interviewees' responses and measure the strength of a connection between different factors.
          • Questions can be replicated  to check the findings are reliable.
          • Interviewers are trained in interviewing techniques, so they can clarify the meaning of questions and clear up any misunderstandings.
        • Limitations
          • Interviewees' may lie to try and shock or impress the interviewer.
          • Potential for interview and interviewer bias.
          • When using the same questions and having a certain amount of time it closes of some new and interesting issues and areas, limiting the interviewees' opinions
      • Unstructured interviews offer flexibility.
        • Limitations
          • Time consuming and expensive.
          • Not easy to conduct.
          • Interviewer bias
          • Difficult to replicate interview to check the reliabilty
          • Less interviews because it is time consuming meaning smaller sample size.
        • Advantages
          • Much more flexible. Interviewer can clarify and rephrase. Also they can prompt, probe and ask additional questions
          • Interviewees' have the opportunity to talk at length in there own words. They develop answers and introduce new points. So more in depth account of topic.
      • Group Interviews are like small group discussions covering a number of relevant areas and themes
        • Advanrages
          • Wide range of views, rich source of information on a topic.
          • Individuals can be asked to do follow up single interviews.
          • Individuals may feel more comfortable putting there opinions across in a group.
        • Limitations
          • Topic may be sensitive.
          • Peer pressure
          • Confidentiality is not guaranteed
    • Longitudinal Studies
      • Longitudinal studies are studies of a group of people over time. Changes overtime, for example in people's social attitudes and experience can be examined
        • Advantages
          • Changes like people's daily lives, experience, behaviour, values,opinions, attitudes and expectations can be identified.
        • Limitations
          • It's expensive.
          • Researcher involvement may lead to a change in behaviour of participants
          • (BALL) Hard to stay in contact with participants over time.
          • People may change there minds and decide they do not want to take part anymore.
    • Observation
      • Overt PO (open)
        • Advantage: It's ethical as people know. Disadvantage: May influence participants behaviour.
      • Covert PO (closed)
        • Advantage: Can develop knowledge on illegal activity. People won't change their behaviour. Disadvantage: It's not ethical. May be reluctant to ask questions as it may blow their cover.
      • Particpant
        • Advantages
          • Study in natural, non-artificial,everyday settings.
          • More reliable and truthful view of group.
          • May not want to be interview, so only way.
        • Limitations
          • Difficult to gain entry on group
          • Hard to gain groups trust
          • Expensive and time consuming
          • Hard to take down notes etc
          • Over involvement may lead to biased results
      • Non-Participant
        • Advantages
          • Less likely to get over involved. Results are not biased.
          • Can write things down. It's Ethical.
        • Limitations
          • More difficult to see through the groups eyes.(Less understanding)
            • Group members may change there behaviour


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