Chemistry Atomic Structure Mindmap

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  • Structures and Bonding
    • Shells of an element
      • Each shell represents a different energy level.
      • Electrons are on the shells of an element. They are attracted by the positive pull of the nucleus.
      • Eight electrons on their outer shells.
        • Group 0, Noble gases.
          • Stable and Unreactive
          • Argon (Light bulbs), Neon (Lights), Helium (Balloons).
    • Atomic Structure
    • The Periodic Table
      • Horizontal rows= Periods.
      • Vertical columns= Groups.
      • In order of atomic numbers.
    • Chemical bonding
      • Covalent Bonding
        • Sharing of Electrons
          • Want eight electrons on their outer shells.
        • Two none- metals
        • BBC Bitesize
        • Giant covalent structures
          • Covalent lattices. Eg: Diamond.
      • Ionic Bonding
        • Transferring Electrons.
          • If an element gains an electron, it becomes negatively charged as it has one more electron than proton. If it loses an electron, then it becomes positively charged.
        • Want eight electrons on their outer shells. Eg: 2,8,1 and 2,8,7. 2,8,1 loses an electron to become 2,8, and 2,8,7 gains one to become 2,8,8.
        • None-metal and a metal
        • BBC Bitesize
        • Metals generally lose electrons, None-Metals gain them.
        • Can create giant structures.
      • Metallic Bonding
        • Two metals.
        • Metals also have giant structures.
        • Regular layers of positively charged ions. Delocalised electrons in between and around these ions.
          • These delocalised electrons can carry an electrical charge.
        • Metals can be galvanised to stop them from rusting. This is where they are dipped in zinc.

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