Structure of a Typical Animal Cell

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  • Structure of a Typical Animal Cell
    • Cell Membrane
      • differentially permeable
      • consists of a bilayer of phospholipid molecules
        • hydrophilic head (attracts water)
        • hydrophobic fatty acid tail (repels water)
      • proteins embedded in layer
        • functions which regulate process outside the cell, eg:
          • pumps which actively transport certain ions & amino acids/sugars across membrane
          • channels which allow small ions & molecules to diffuse across the membrane passively
          • receptor proteins which allow cells to be recognised by other cells in the body as well as providing binding sites for substances such as hormones or antibodies
      • cholesterol found disturbs close packingof phospholipds & keeps membrane fluid
      • controls what enters & leaves the cell
        • diffusion, osmosis, active transport (sodium-potassium pumps,endocytosis & exocytosis
      • protects cell contents from environment
    • Nucleus
      • contains cells DNA
      • surrounded by nuclear membrane with pores
      • nucleolus lives inside nucleus
        • contains RNA -> vital in protein synthesis
      • controls all activities within cell
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • surfacefor chemical reactions
      • has channels to store & transport proteins made on ribosomes
      • Rough ER: ribosomes on its surfaceto produce proteins
      • SmoothER: no ribosomes & produces lipids & steroids
    • Ribosomes
      • site of protein synthesis
      • amino acids are joined together to make proteins
      • cell's protein factories
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • usually near nucleus
      • modifies proteins delivered from ER & packages them in vesicles for secretion
    • Lysosomes
      • special vesicles that containdigestive enzymes to breakdown substances taken into cell by endocytosis or worn our organelles
    • Mitochondria
      • make energy (ATP) via respiration
      • has double membrane: smoothouter membrane & folder inner membane to increase surfacearea allowing more chemical reactions to take place
      • enzymes involved in respiration are locatedon cristae
    • Cytoskeleton
      • give cell its shape & assistsin movement
      • consists of microfilamentsthat move materials around cytoplasm & move whole cell
      • consists of microbules that help move organelles
      • centrioles: filaments involved in cell divisions


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