structure of neurons

  • Created by: cieran32
  • Created on: 19-09-18 22:45
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  • structure of a neuron
    • Nodes of Ranvier- the smll gap is known as the node of ranvier.
      • creates gaps in the myelin sheath
        • gaps occur in every 1-3min
      • in myelinated neurons, the electrical impulse jumps from one node to the next as it travels along the neuron- allows impulse to be transmitted faster
        • in non myelinated neurons impulse does not jump , transmits alongside nerve fibre so is slower,
    • Dendrons
      • short extensions which come from the cell body
      • These extensions divide into smaller and smaller branches called dendrites
      • Dendrites are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses towards the cell body.
    • myelin sheath- axons of some neurons are covered in myelin sheath
      • Acts as an insulating layer and allows the Neuron to conduct the electrical impulse at a much faster speed
      • Myelinated neurons can transmit impulses at up to 100 metres per second, whereas unmyelinated neurons can only conduct impulses at approximately 1 metre per second
    • Cell body - Contains the nucleus surrounded by the cytoplasm
      • cytoplasm includes Endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria which are involved in the production of neurotransmitters
      • Neurotransmitters are used to pass signals from one neuron to the next
    • axons- singular , elongated nerve  fibres that transmit impulses away from the cell body
      • These fibres can be very long E.G those that transmit impulses from the tips of toes and fingers to spinal cord.
      • fibre is cylindrical in shape consisting of a very narrow cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane


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