Structure and organisation of education

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  • Structure and organisation of education
    • Education pre-1988
      • free state-run secondary education available for all
      • tripartite system introduced
        • if 11+ is passed, child can attend a grammar school
        • if 11+ is failed, child can attend a secondary modern or technical college
        • system deemed unfair as a test taken at the age of 11 shouldn't decide what education children should have
      • comprehensive schools introduced to serve a local area + cater for students of all abilities
      • conservatives opposed the comprehensive programme and allowed continuation of grammar schools
    • 1988 Education Reform Act
      • 1. National curriculum introduced
      • 2. Standard Attainment Tests (SATs) + league tables introduced
        • check attainment targets had been reached and publish the results to encourage schools' effectiveness and allow parents enough information to make an informed choice of school
      • 3. Grant-maintained schools
        • state schools allowed to opt out of local authority control if enough parents voted to support it
      • 4. City Technology colleges
        • aimed to bring more IT and links with business into their curricula
      • 5. Local Management of Schools
        • more power was given to head teachers + governors
      • 6. Open enrolment
        • parents were given the right to send their children to the school of their choice. Created sense of parentocracy
      • 7. Formula funding
        • financing of schools largely based on number of students on roll
    • Changes to post-16 education
      • Curriculum 2000 - introduced broader range of A levels and new AS qualifications
      • reduction of A level units (6 to 4)
      • elimination of coursework and introduction of extended project plus introduction of A* grade
    • EAZs and EiC
      • additional funding given to disadvantaged areas to set up breakfast clubs, homework clubs, summer literacy and numeracy schemes + extra curricular activities
      • aimed to improve attainment levels of pupils from low-income backgrounds
    • Types of schools
      • Private schools
        • attended largely by wealthy upper-middle and upper-class children
        • around 7% of school population educated at independent schools
      • Faith schools
        • publicly funded
        • must teach national curriculum
      • Specialist schools + City academies
        • city academies are publicly funded schools to which private sponsors contribute financially in exchange for a say in the curriculum, ethos and staffing
        • sometimes replace 'failing' comprehensive schools
        • concern about influence of sponsors


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