all studies for stress

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  • stress studies
    • cohen
      • 1993
      • general life stress to vulnerability to the common cold
        • 82% infected with common cold
          • 7 days
            • percentage of clinical colds recorded
              • findings
                • chance of failing to fight off the infection positively correalated with stress index score
      • 394 participants
        • questionnaires on number fo stressful life eents experienced in the past year
          • stress index
            • such as depression
        • degree of stress
          • stress index
            • such as depression
        • level of negative emotions
        • conclusions
          • life stress and negative emotions reduce effectiveness of our immune system
      • holmes and rahe
        • 1967
        • SRRS
          • 43 life events
            • 5000 patient records
              • rated how each event would effect them
                • 400 participants
                • these enabled a stress rating to be applied to each event
                • rated relative to marriage which had a value of 50
                  • death of a spouse was rated at 100
                • socred averaged to give life change units (LCU)
        • 400 participants
      • delongis
        • 1982
        • 100 participants
          • san francisco
          • 45- 64
          • well educated
          • high income
        • life events infrequent
          • looked at hassles of daily life
            • better predictor of health problems in later life
          • no effect on health during the study
          • was a relationship recorded for the 2.5 years before the study
        • uplifts
          • little effect on health
        • frequency and intensity of hassles significantly correalted with overall health status and bodily symptoms
      • kiecolt-glaser
        • blood samples
          • one month before exams and during exams
          • reduced natural killer T cells during exams
            • supports hypothesis
              • stress decreses the action of the immune system
        • 75 medical students
          • one month before exams and during exams
      • friedman and rosenman
        • 1974
        • structured interview
          • establish personality type
            • type A
              • competitiveness
                • could lead to...
                  • raised blood pressure
                  • levels of stress hormones linked to ill health
              • acheievement striving
                • could lead to...
                  • raised blood pressure
                  • levels of stress hormones linked to ill health
              • impatience
                • time urgency
                  • aggressiveness
                    • hostility
                • 3000 californian men
                  • 8.5 yrs later
                    • twice as many type A personalities had died of a heart attach than type B personalities
                      • individual differences on teh stress response
              • Marmot
                • 1997
                • job strain model
                  • high demand
                    • not linked to stress and illness
                      • does not fully support the job strain model because it does not show links between high demand and illness
                  • low control
                    • linked to cardiovascular disease
                • 7,372 men and women
                  • questionnaire and checked for cardiovascular disease
                    • signs of cardiovascular disease
                    • presence of cornonary risk factors
                    • employment grade
                      • higher grades had fewest cardiovascular problems
                    • sense of job control
                      • lower grades had weaker sense of job control
                • cardiovascular disease were more likely to be smokers and overweight
              • Kobassa
                • hardy personality
                  • chalenge...
                    • any stress makes life more interesting
                  • commitment...
                    • organisation
                      • giving plenty of time to prepare for events
                  • Control...
                    • amount of stress experienced can be regulated
                    • in charge of their lives
                    • if they lack knowledge or skills, they aquire it
                  • buffer or protection against teh negative effects of stressors
                • hardiness training
                  • focusing
                    • being aware of physical signs of stress
                  • reconstuction
                    • how could previous stressful situations have turnied out better
                  • self improvement
                    • takke on challenges that can be coped with as this increases sense of beign able to cope
                      • self efficacy
              • johansson
                • 1979
                • swedish sawmill
                  • work overload
                    • low risk group
                    • high risk group
                      • higher illness rates and higher levels of adrenaline in urine
                      • higher hormone levels on work days than on rest days
                      • effect of doing monotonous jobs with some responsibility
                  • a direct link betweeb job demand, stress hormones and illness
            • kiecolt-glaser
              • blood samples
                • reduced natural killer T cells during exams
                  • supports hypothesis
                    • stress decreses the action of the immune system
              • 75 medical students
              • friedman and rosenman
                • 1974
                • structured interview
                  • establish personality type
                    • type A
                      • competitiveness
                        • acheievement striving
                          • impatience
                            • time urgency
                              • aggressiveness
                                • hostility
                            • 3000 californian men
                              • 8.5 yrs later
                                • twice as many type A personalities had died of a heart attach than type B personalities
                                  • individual differences on teh stress response
                          • rahe
                            • 1970
                            • 2,500 male american sailors
                              • filled in the SRRS
                                • previous six months before tour of duty, and...
                                  • ...records kept of sailors health over the six month tour of duty
                                    • LCU was correalated with the sailors illness scores
                                      • positive correalation of 0.0118
                            • stress studies
                              • cohen
                                • 1993
                                • general life stress to vulnerability to the common cold
                                  • 82% infected with common cold
                                    • 7 days
                                      • percentage of clinical colds recorded
                                        • findings
                                          • chance of failing to fight off the infection positively correalated with stress index score
                                • 394 participants
                                  • questionnaires on number fo stressful life eents experienced in the past year
                                    • degree of stress
                                      • level of negative emotions
                                      • conclusions
                                        • life stress and negative emotions reduce effectiveness of our immune system
                                    • holmes and rahe
                                      • 1967
                                      • SRRS
                                        • 43 life events
                                          • 5000 patient records
                                            • rated how each event would effect them
                                              • these enabled a stress rating to be applied to each event
                                              • rated relative to marriage which had a value of 50
                                                • death of a spouse was rated at 100
                                              • socred averaged to give life change units (LCU)
                                    • delongis
                                      • 1982
                                      • 100 participants
                                        • san francisco
                                        • 45- 64
                                        • well educated
                                        • high income
                                      • life events infrequent
                                        • looked at hassles of daily life
                                          • better predictor of health problems in later life
                                        • no effect on health during the study
                                        • was a relationship recorded for the 2.5 years before the study
                                      • uplifts
                                        • little effect on health
                                      • frequency and intensity of hassles significantly correalted with overall health status and bodily symptoms
                                    • Marmot
                                      • 1997
                                      • job strain model
                                        • high demand
                                          • not linked to stress and illness
                                            • does not fully support the job strain model because it does not show links between high demand and illness
                                        • low control
                                          • linked to cardiovascular disease
                                      • 7,372 men and women
                                        • questionnaire and checked for cardiovascular disease
                                          • signs of cardiovascular disease
                                          • presence of cornonary risk factors
                                          • employment grade
                                            • higher grades had fewest cardiovascular problems
                                          • sense of job control
                                            • lower grades had weaker sense of job control
                                      • cardiovascular disease were more likely to be smokers and overweight
                                    • Kobassa
                                      • hardy personality
                                        • chalenge...
                                          • any stress makes life more interesting
                                        • commitment...
                                          • organisation
                                            • giving plenty of time to prepare for events
                                        • Control...
                                          • amount of stress experienced can be regulated
                                          • in charge of their lives
                                          • if they lack knowledge or skills, they aquire it
                                        • buffer or protection against teh negative effects of stressors
                                      • hardiness training
                                        • focusing
                                          • being aware of physical signs of stress
                                        • reconstuction
                                          • how could previous stressful situations have turnied out better
                                        • self improvement
                                          • takke on challenges that can be coped with as this increases sense of beign able to cope
                                            • self efficacy
                                    • johansson
                                      • 1979
                                      • swedish sawmill
                                        • work overload
                                          • low risk group
                                          • high risk group
                                            • higher illness rates and higher levels of adrenaline in urine
                                            • higher hormone levels on work days than on rest days
                                            • effect of doing monotonous jobs with some responsibility
                                        • a direct link betweeb job demand, stress hormones and illness
                                • Michenbaum
                                  • 1975
                                  • investigate effectiveness of his stress innoculation therpay (SIT)
                                  • anxious pre-exam college students
                                    • condition 1
                                      • eight weeks of SIT
                                        • evaluated through exam performance and self reports
                                        • most positive self-reports and out performed other students
                                    • condition 2
                                      • eight weeks of systematic desensitisation
                                    • condition 3
                                      • no therapy, told they were on waiting list
                                        • remained anxious
                                  • quasi-experimental method
                                  • SIT proved very successful
                                    • often showed to help reduce anxiety in stressful situations, does not apply to depression
                                • more flexibility and less monotonous jobs

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