Stress - Health topic

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  • Stress
    • Causes of Stress
      • Work
        • Johansson
          • A quasi experiment using 24 Swedish sawmill workers, 14 high risk and 10 maintenance workers
            • Results: High Risk group adrenaline increased throughout day, felt rushed and irritated, lower well being
          • Set pace, complex job, needed knowledge on materials, responsible for teams wages.
            • Work
              • Johansson
                • A quasi experiment using 24 Swedish sawmill workers, 14 high risk and 10 maintenance workers
                  • Results: High Risk group adrenaline increased throughout day, felt rushed and irritated, lower well being
                • Set pace, complex job, needed knowledge on materials, responsible for teams wages.
                  • Mood and Alertness, caffeine and nicotine consumption
                    • Self report
                    • Daily urine sample, start of shift and 4 other times a day - adrenaline, body temperature (baseline taken on days off at home)
                      • Physiological Measures
                • Mood and Alertness, caffeine and nicotine consumption
                  • Self report
                  • Daily urine sample, start of shift and 4 other times a day - adrenaline, body temperature (baseline taken on days off at home)
                    • Physiological Measures
                • Hassles and Life Events
                  • Kenner
                    • A repeated measures, self report design using 109 people (Californian, protestant) 9 people dropped out - 100 participants
                      • Results:Hassles were consitent from month to month, the more hassles reported the more negative physcological symptoms the reported
                    • Self reports: The hassles rating every night months, the life events after 10 months, the HSC and Bradburn Moral Scale every 9 months
                      • A repeated measures, self report design using 109 people (Californian, protestant) 9 people dropped out - 100 participants
                        • Results:Hassles were consitent from month to month, the more hassles reported the more negative physcological symptoms the reported
                • Lack of Control
                  • Geer and Maisel
                    • An independent measures,  lab experiment, participants show pictures of dead car crash victims and stress levels were measured using GSR and heart rate monitors
                      • Results: Heart rate was invalid, Group 2 showed most stress due to no control, group 1 showed less stress when photo shown
                    • When participants had control over how long they saw the photo for they showed less stress due to having control
                      • Lack of Control
                        • Geer and Maisel
                          • An independent measures,  lab experiment, participants show pictures of dead car crash victims and stress levels were measured using GSR and heart rate monitors
                            • Results: Heart rate was invalid, Group 2 showed most stress due to no control, group 1 showed less stress when photo shown
                          • When participants had control over how long they saw the photo for they showed less stress due to having control
                            • 3 groups: Group 1: Control over length of photo and could terminate photo a tone would precede each photo - control and predictable Group 2: Saw photo for 35 secs, told they would be 1 minute apart and 10 second warning tone - no control and predictability Group 3: saw photos for 35 secs, not told warning - no control and no predictability
                      • 3 groups: Group 1: Control over length of photo and could terminate photo a tone would precede each photo - control and predictable Group 2: Saw photo for 35 secs, told they would be 1 minute apart and 10 second warning tone - no control and predictability Group 3: saw photos for 35 secs, not told warning - no control and no predictability
                • Measuring Stress
                  • Combined Approach
                  • Managing Stress
                    • Behavioural
                      • Meichenbaum
                        • Systematic desensitization: Participants were given 8 therapy sessions with progressive relaxation training - practice at home while imaging anxiety causing situations
                          • Behavioural
                            • Meichenbaum
                              • Systematic desensitization: Participants were given 8 therapy sessions with progressive relaxation training - practice at home while imaging anxiety causing situations
                                • SIT group: 8 therapy sessions, given the insight approach to help identify thoughts before the test, positive statements and relaxation techniques
                                  • Cognitive
                                  • A field experiment, blind test groups - matched pairs using anxiety levels and equal genders for each group - 21 paritcipants, students aged 17 - 25 who repsonded to advertisemt about treatment for test anxiety
                                    • Results: Both groups reported improvement in their anxiety levels compared to control group
                                      • SIT is most effective way of reducing anxiety in students who have test anxiety, as it adds a cognitive component to the therapy
                                        • Cognitive
                                    • Students assessed before and after treatment using self report and grade averages - two groups: SIT and systematic desensitization and control group (waiting list)
                              • SIT group: 8 therapy sessions, given the insight approach to help identify thoughts before the test, positive statements and relaxation techniques
                                • A field experiment, blind test groups - matched pairs using anxiety levels and equal genders for each group - 21 paritcipants, students aged 17 - 25 who repsonded to advertisemt about treatment for test anxiety
                                  • Results: Both groups reported improvement in their anxiety levels compared to control group
                                    • SIT is most effective way of reducing anxiety in students who have test anxiety, as it adds a cognitive component to the therapy
                                  • Students assessed before and after treatment using self report and grade averages - two groups: SIT and systematic desensitization and control group (waiting list)
                              • Social
                                • Waxler
                                  • A quasi experiement using indepent measures design (based on exisiting social support networks) with women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, 133 women under 55 who had been referred to a clinic in vancouver
                                    • Findings: Married women who survived reported a supportive spouse, practical help such as childcare, transport and cooking were concrete aspect of support
                                  • The more socail networks and support the higher the rate of survivial - assumed because stress is reduced.
                                    • Social
                                      • Waxler
                                        • A quasi experiement using indepent measures design (based on exisiting social support networks) with women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, 133 women under 55 who had been referred to a clinic in vancouver
                                          • Findings: Married women who survived reported a supportive spouse, practical help such as childcare, transport and cooking were concrete aspect of support
                                        • The more socail networks and support the higher the rate of survivial - assumed because stress is reduced.
                                          • A self report method, with questionnaires (demography and social networks, education level, who they are responsible for I.E Children) and 18 interviews, which looked at marital status, contact with friends and family and church membership
                                      • A self report method, with questionnaires (demography and social networks, education level, who they are responsible for I.E Children) and 18 interviews, which looked at marital status, contact with friends and family and church membership

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