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  • Stress
    • Stress in everyday life
      • Life changes
      • Daily hassles
      • Workplace stress
      • Personality factors
    • Stress as a bodily response
      • The body's response to stress
        • Physicaly feelings include:  Increased heart rate Dry Mouth Sweaty Palms   Can’t eat Can’t sleep Sick feeling
        • Fight or Flight?
          • The nervous system
            • Central Nervous system (CNS) which includes the brain and spinal cord
            • Peripheral Nervous System which is made up of the SNS and the ANS
              • Automatic Nervous System (ANS) has two branches: The Sympathetic branch and Parasympathetic branch
                • Sympathetic branch speeds up a reaction and causes the FIGHT OR FLIGHT response
                  • Increases heart rate reduces stomach activity dilates pupils inhibits saliva production
                • The Parasympathetic branch returns the body back to normal and 'rests' it
                  • Decreases heart rate reduces blood pressure increases digestions
          • The endocrine system
            • The endocrine system consists of glands which secrete hormones into the blood stream in order to communicate with each other 
            • Glands and what hormone they release
              • Hypothalamus ? corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF)
              • Pituitary gland ? Adreno corticotrophin (ACTH)
              • Adrenal Cortex ? Cortisol
              • Adrenal Medulla? Adrenaline
          • The endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system work together to produce the bodies response to stressful situations
        • Sympathetic adrenal medullary system (SAM)
          • Hypothalamus detects stress and releases      CRF                    ?          SNS is activated             ?           SNS sends neurotransmitter noradrenaline to the adrenal medulla                  ?         adrenal medulla converts noradrenaline into adrenaline ready to FIGHT or FLIGHT
          • Too much adrenaline gets picked up by the hypothalamus who switches off the SAM if the threat is no longer there…
          • If the initial fight or flight response does not make the stress go away, eventually, the stress may change from being an acute stressor to a chronic stressor
        • Hypothalumus Pituitary Adrenal system (HPA)
          • Hypothalamus releases CRF to the pituitary gland                   ?          Pituitary gland releases ACTH through the blood to the adrenal cortex                   ?         adrenal cortex releases cortisol
            • Cortisol breaks down glucose and gives the individual energy to keep fighting the stressor
              • When too much Cortisol is circulating in the blood stream, the hypothalamus will switch off the HPA AXIS so the body returns to normal
            • Too much cortisol can cause problems with thinking, high blood pressure and lower immune functioning
      • Stress-related illness
        • Acute stress
          • An immediate stressor that is not long lasting 
        • Chronic stress
          • A problem that lasts for a long time and is ongoing 
        • The immune system provides a defence against infectious organisms that invade our body and cause disease
        • Kiecolt - Glaser et al (1984)
          • To investigate whether the stress of short term stressors such as the examination period had an effect on the immune system (NK cells)
          • METHOD: Natural experiment  PROCEDURE: All 75 Participants were measured on two different occasions  •Firstly, blood was taken a month before examinations  •Secondly bloody was taken during the examinations  Participants were also given a questionnaire to fill in about stressful life events
          • FINDINGS:        •The blood samples taken during the examinations were much lower in NK cells than the samples taken a month earlier
            • •This suggests that the body had fewer natural defenses        during the stressful time, so during examinations the participants were more vulnerable to illness
    • Psychological methods of stress management
    • Biological methods of stress management
    • Stress is    experienced when a persons perceived environmental, social and physical demands exceed their perceived ability to cope


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