A2 Psychology - Stress

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  • Stress
    • Causes of Stress
      • Work
        • Causes - environments, relationships, lack of control, workload.
        • Johansson
          • A - Work stressors cause stress?
          • Sample - 14 finishers 14 Cleaners
          • M - Urine samples, body temperature, self report scales and illness.
          • R - Finishers more stress hormone, less well-being, more illness etc
          • Conclusion - Stress=nature of work.
        • Isolation, repetitiveness and responsibility = stress
      • Lack of Control
        • Contol =power e.g. exam stress controlled by revising
        • Geer + Maisel
          • A - percieved/actual control reduce stress?
          • S - 60 NY psychology students
          • M - Max control = button +warning. Some control = warning. No control = nothing. Car crash victims
          • R - max control - less stress some control = most stress.
          • C- contol = less stress
        • Control + stress = unclear relationship.
      • Hassles and life events
        • Holmes + Rahe - major hassles, social readjustment.
        • Kanner
          • A - Hassles compared life events
          • S - 100 white californians
          • M - Hassles, life events, HSCL, Bradburne Morale scale.
          • R - Hassles + stress strong pos correlation
          • Conclusion - Hassles more powerful stress predictors
        • Life events - plan. Hassles - unexpected
    • Methods of Measuring Stress
      • Self Report
        • Questionnaires/Interviews/Diaries.
        • Kanner
          • Hassles and uplifts scale
        • Self reports - measure stress, report the stressful situation
      • Physiological
        • Stess - body acts in measurable way (sweats). Cannon - Fight/flight response.
        • Geer + Maisel
          • Galvanic skin responses
          • percieved control = higher stress.
        • Stress can be physiologically measured.
      • Combined
        • Johansson
          • Physiological - urine samples/body temperature
          • Self report - mood, alertness, cafiene, nicotine
        • see agreement between measures and higher validity.
        • Removes flaws of methods
    • Techniques for measuring stress
      • Behavioural approach
        • biofeedback - learn to change response via operant conditioning.
        • Budzynski
          • A - Biofeedback; tension headaches
          • S - 18 volunteers - ad - colorado.
          • M - biofeedback + relaxation 2 a week for 8 weeks/prerecorded BF and relaxation 2 a week for 8 weeks/waiting list.
          • R - Bf = reduced headaches group 1+2 = reduced depression
          • C - Biofeedback = effective.
        • Deals with stress not preventing
      • Cognitive
        • Changing the way we think
        • Meichenbaum
          • A - SIT vs behavioural systematic desensitisation
          • S - 21 students test anxiety advert
          • M - anxiety via self reports. SIT; 8 sessions BSD - 8 sessions + waiting list.
          • R - improved performance and anxiety levels
          • C - SIT better than bsd.
        • changing thinking reduces stress.
      • Social
        • Waxler - Morrison
          • A- Social support w/ breast cancer survival.
          • M - questionnaires + 18 interviews on percieved support, actual support, medical records.
          • R- 6 factors; marital status/friend support/contact with friends/total support/social network.
          • C- social support reduces stress.
        • Support reduces impact of stressor.
        • Motivate and shared goal.

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