- Strengths of the Tsar in 1913
- The Peasants loved the Tsar as ‘their father’, and revered him as empowered from God
- The church was powerful and supported the Romanov government.
- Government and the army were controlled by the nobles and supported the government, which used the Cossacks to put down protests
- The secret police (Okhrana) and press censorship.
- the 'Rights' (called by Lenin 'the Black Hundreds') - deputies who so supported the Tsar that they wanted to abolish the Duma and restore autocracy.
- the 'Octobrists'were supporters of the Tsar who did not want to go so far as to restore autocracy, but wanted him to keep to the October manifesto.
- The Romanov dynasty had ruled since 1613, the 300th celebrations made the Tsar very popular