Strength and Flexibility

View mindmap
  • Strength and Flexibility
    • Strength
      • Types
        • Dynamic (power)
          • characterised by movement
            • muscles lengthen and shorten
              • Causes movement
            • Isotonic - Eccentric and Concentric
        • Static
          • Force applied against a resistance without movement
            • Isometric
            • no change in length of muscle
        • Maximum
          • maximal force applied to a resistance in one contraction
        • Explosive
          • max force in one or a series of contarctions
          • strength reflex mechanism where stretched before concentrically contracting
            • recoil adds to the contraction force
          • Fast Glycolytic / anaerobic performance
        • Strength endurance
          • ability to apply a force over a period of time from a given muscle group
            • without impact of fatigue
      • The ability of the body to apply a force
      • types of training and adaptations
        • the amount of weight being used is based on percentage of 1 rep max
          • 85% to improve muscle strength
          • 70% build explosive
          • 50% - strength endurance
        • weight training - free weights
          • altered to develop types of strength, used by all, develops agonist and fixator muscle
          • can be dangerous when reaching 1 rep max, required spotter, minimal safety features
        • multigym
          • adjustable weight stack for suitability, multiple movements in one machine
          • hard to isolate specific movements
        • plyometric
          • series of explosive strength exercises
            • aimed at speed of muscle contractions
            • higher eccentric contraction force stored to be released for concentric contraction
        • HIIT
          • rest periods, strength endurance, combines all others and using body weight, hugely flexible
        • Adaptations
          • neural pathways
            • initiated due to signal to cerebellum
              • greater recruitment of FG and FOE fibres
              • reduced inhibition to stretch reflex
              • increased recruitment of motor units and speed/strength/power output
          • Muscle and connective tissue
            • tendons, ligaments etc need to strengthen
              • increased stability, bone density, better calcium absoption
              • muscular hypertrophy
                • greater muscle fibre size and force of contraction
          • Metabolic function
            • increased ATP, Phospocreatine and glycogen stored
            • better tolerance and removal of lactic acid - delays OBLA
              • Increases anaerobic threshold
    • Flexibility
      • Types of training
        • static
          • Active
            • self move joint into stretch position
          • Passive
            • with aid of partner - taken beyond point of resistance
          • contract agonist to stretch antagonist
        • Isometric
          • holding a stretched position with use of partner or apparatus, 7-20 seconds
          • overcome stretch reflex, creates greater stretch in both resting and stretched fibres
          • cane damage tendons and other connective tissue, avoided buy u16s
        • Proprioceptive neuromuscluar facilitation
          • Desensitise the stretch reflex to increase range of movement
          • Controlled
          • heavy warm up, cause injury
        • Ballistic
          • explosive or dynamic movements, momentum to force the joint through an extreme range of movements
          • HR raiser, pump oxygenated blood
          • Tiring - fatigue - injury, hard to desensitise stretch reflex
        • Dynamic
          • taking a joint through its full range of motion with control of entry and exit, not extreme range
          • not full range of movement
      • the range of movement around a joint
      • Adaptations
        • Increased resting length, to reduce reflex
        • improved elasticity - inhibition from antagonist
        • Greater range of movement

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Anatomy & physiology resources »