Stolypin's repression, 1906-14

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  • Created on: 06-05-20 15:17
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  • Stolypin's repression, 1906-14
    • Repression
      • In August 1906, Stolypin declared a 'state of emergency'.
        • This formally suspended the rights guarenteed by the Fundamental Laws.
          • Allowed the government to use terror aginst the Tsar's subjects:
            • Officials were given the right to imprison people without putting them on trial.
            • The military were given the power to dispense justice.
              • Lawyers and appeals were banned in military courts.
              • Many military courts had the right to exile of execute rebels, and appeals were not permitted.
      • The Scale of the Repression
        • Between 1906-10 Stolypin's courts found 37,620 people gulity of political crimes.
          • 8,640 of these were sent to labour camps.
          • 1,858 were 'resettled' to Russia's deserts or to the wastelands of Serbia.
            • 'Resettlement' usually meant death.
          • Russia's prison population rose from 98,000 in 1905, to over 250,000 by 1913.
        • Stolypin's name became associated with the brutal policies.
          • The trains that carried people away into exile became known as 'Stolypin Wagons'.
          • The hangman's noose was nicknamed 'Stolypins necktie'.
    • Actions against revolutionary parties
      • Came in two stages
        • 1906-07
          • Repression of revolutionaries became widespread and brutal.
            • The state's main method was to put revolutionaries on trial in the brutal military courts.
          • Revolutionaries responded in two days:
            • SRs continued their campaign of assasinations.
              • Led to the deaths of 1,126 government officials in 1906.
            • Revolutionary leaders fled Russia.
              • Eg, Lenin fled to Finland and then to Western Europe.
        • 1907-14
          • At the start of 1907, Trusevich, head of Russian police, established 8 regional security bureaus to target revolutionary parties.
            • The new bureaus oversaw the dissolution of the 2nd Duma and the arrest and prosecution of the revolutionaries who had been elected to the Duma.
            • However, from mid-1907, Trusevich instituted a policy of surveillance and subversion.
              • Tried to limit the number of executions, and disrupt revolutionary parties though infiltration.
              • This policy was highly effective.
                • Offical reports indicate that Trusevich and Stolypin were convinced that, by 1908, their agents had effectively won the battle against the revolutionary parties.
                  • Trusevich's agents infiltrated revolutionary parties, creating an atmosphere of mistrust, as revolutionaries had no idea who were double agents.
                    • eg, In 1909 the SRs discovered that one of their most high-profile leaders, Azef, was a political informant.
                    • By 1913, Trusevich had 94 agents within revolutionary groups in St Petersburg alone.
      • Middle class reaction
        • The Octoberists and right-wing parties supported the repressions.
          • Even some liberals co-operated with the regime, as they didn't want Russia to slide into anarchy.
    • Police Failings
      • The police were broadly effective at disrupting revolutionary parties.
        • However, they failed to stamp out the revolutionary newspapers.
          • The Fundamental Laws effectivly created a free press.
          • In 1912, the Bolsheviks founded 'Pravda', and the Mensheviks founded 'Luch'.
          • Police kept the newspapers under surveillance and they attempted to close 'pravda' 8 times between 1912-14.
            • However, it always re-emerged.


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