# Stats made easy

• Created by: Emily
• Created on: 27-08-13 11:06
• STATS MADE EASY
• Hypothesis - a prediction we make about our experiment
• A non- directional (two-tailed) hypothesis - predicts that the IV will have an effect on the DV but doesn't say in a specific direction
• A null hypothesis - predicts nothing will happen
• Having more than two cups of coffee in the morning will have no effect on scores on a memory test
• A directional (one-tailed) hypothesis - predicts that the IV will have an effect on the DV but in a specific way
• Having more than two cups of coffee in the morning will increase the scores on a memory test compared to no coffee
• Data Analysis - Descriptive Statistics
• Mean - all scores are added together and divided by the number of scores
• all scores taken into account
• can be skewed by extreme scores
• CT
• Median - all scores put in order and the middle score identified
• not skewed by extreme scored
• does not take into account all scores and may be a fraction
• CT
• Mode - most commonly occurring score
• easy to calculate and shows us what we want
• May be several and ignores other scores
• CT
• Range - top value minus the bottom value
• Easy to calculate
• doesn't take into account all data and can be skewed by extreme scores
• D
• CT - Central Tendency
• D - Dispersion
• Standard Deviation - measure of the average amount that the scores differ from the mean.
• takes into account all scores gives and clear indication of dispersion
• difficult to calculate
• D
• Probability and Significance
• Probability - how likely it is that something will happen
• getting heads when tossing a coin p=0.5
• scoring a six on a die p=0.16
• drawing a heart from a pack of cards p=0.25
• Probability in Psychology
• Probability is used to measure the significance of an experiment
• ACCEPTED SIGNIFICANCE - 5% - P=0.05
• If a result is significant (p=or0.05), then the nul hypothesis is accepted

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