Standards and Dialects

Mindmap mapping the topic of standards and dialects

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  • Created by: Zoe
  • Created on: 18-12-13 17:44
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  • Standards and Dialects
    • What is a dialect?
      • Subdivision of a language
      • Differs from other forms on phonological levels
      • Differs from other forms on grammatical levels
      • Differs from other forms on lexical levels
      • Complex and rule governed
      • No better/worse than other forms
      • Often but not always defined by geography
      • ACCENT
        • Differences in phonphon
      • VARIETY
        • Useful term used to describe a distinct form (neutral)
      • VERNACULAR
        • Defined by Labov as the most casual form of speech, used when speakers are least conscious of their speech
    • Languages and Dialects
      • All languages exhibit internal variation
        • A language is a sum of its varieties and dialects
      • Dialects are usually related to one another historically
        • Structurally similar
        • Lexically similar
      • Not all dialects of a language are mutually intelligible
      • Mutually intelligible speakers may speak different languages
      • A language is a powerful dialect
        • Has become so due no non-linguistic factors
    • Prestige
      • STANDARDISATION
        • Whether the variety has been approved by institutions
          • Codified into a dictionary/grammar
          • Used for prestigious texts
      • VITALITY
        • Whether there is a living community of speakers who use the code or whether it's dead/dying
      • HISTORICITY
        • Whether the speakers have a sense of the longevity of their code
      • AUTONOMY
        • Whether speakers consider their code to be substantially different from others
      • REDUCTION
        • Whether speakers consider their code to be a subvariety or a small code in its own right
          • Whether it has a reduced set of social functions
      • MIXTURE
        • Whether speakers consider their language 'pure' or a mixture of other languages
      • 'UNOFFICIAL' NORMS
        • Whether speakers have a sense of 'good' and 'bad' varieties of the code
      • Process of Standardisation (Haugen 1966)
        • 1. SELECTION
          • of 1 dialect above others
          • 2. CODIFICATION
            • largely through education system
            • 3. ELABORATION
              • Increase in functions and range of uses of the code
              • 4. ACCEPTANCE
                • By the community at large of the code as the 'standard' form

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