Standard Model

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  • Fundamental Particles
    • BOSONS: force mediating particles
      • GLUONS
        • These are associated with strong forces, act between quarks to form hadrons and they hold the nucleus together
          • These are short range forces
      • W AND Z BOSONS
        • These are associated with weak nuclear forces, act between leptons and can cause radioactive decay
          • These are short range forces
      • GRAVITONS
        • These are associated with gravitational forces
          • These forces have an infinite range
            • These are associated with electro-magnetic forces and keep electrons inside the nucleus
      • PHOTONS
        • These are associated with electro-magnetic forces and keep electrons inside the nucleus
    • FERMIONS: matter particles
      • LEPTONS: These are light in weight and have a negative charge
        • Electron; 1st generation
        • Muon; 2nd genereation
        • Tau; 3rd generation
        • Neutrino; have no charge and can be found as electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos
      • QUARKS: These make up protons and have different masses and charges but must combine to form hadrons of +1/-1 charge
        • Up quarks
          • Down quarks
            • Strange quarks
              • Charm quarks
                • Top quarks
                  • Bottom quarks
                    • Quarks combine to form hadrons
                      • BARYONS: These are stable molecules made up of 3 quarks
                      • MESONS: These are unstable and are made up of one quark and one anti-quark
                  • Quarks combine to form hadrons
                    • BARYONS: These are stable molecules made up of 3 quarks
                    • MESONS: These are unstable and are made up of one quark and one anti-quark
                • QUARKS: These make up protons and have different masses and charges but must combine to form hadrons of +1/-1 charge
                  • Up quarks
                    • Down quarks
                      • Strange quarks
                        • Charm quarks
                          • Top quarks
                            • Bottom quarks

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